Aldosterone

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A cat diagnosed with adrenal adenocarcinoma, producing hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) and hyperprogesteronism. Clinical signs of alopecia, dermal fragility, comedones and thinning of the skin of the lateral thorax

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland.

Aldosterone is critical in the RAAS regulation, and induces re-absorption of NaCl and water, and excretion of K+ within the renal tubules[1].

A common disease of cats associated with abnormalities of aldosterone levels is primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome), often diagnosed based on an elevated plasma aldosterone concentration and normal plasma renin activity[2]. Conn's syndrome is often due to an adrenal adenoma or adrenal adenocarcinoma [3]. Secondary hyperaldosteronism can result from reduced renal perfusion secondary to chronic renal disease or from rare instances of renin-secreting tumors[4].

A urine aldosterone:renin ratio can be a useful diagnostic tool, and levels of > 46.5 x 10-9 are indicative of normality[5].

Normal plasma levels of aldosterone are difficult to determine in cats and range from 0 - 1714 pmol/L, with plasma renin levels of 1.07 - 4.68 ng/mL/hr[6].

References

  1. Schulman RL (2010) Feline primary hyperaldosteronism. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 40(2):353-359
  2. Briscoe K et al (2009) Hyperaldosteronism and hyperprogesteronism in a cat. J Feline Med Surg 11(9):758-762
  3. Renschler JS & Dean GA (2009) What is your diagnosis? Abdominal mass aspirate in a cat with an increased Na:K ratio. Vet Clin Pathol 38(1):69-72
  4. Wong, L et al (2008) Reninoma: case report and literature review. J Hypertens 26:368
  5. Djajadiningrat-Laanen SC et al (2008) Urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio in cats before and after suppression with salt or fludrocortisone acetate. J Vet Intern Med 22(6):1283-1288
  6. Refsal KR & Harvey, AM (2010) Primary hyperaldosteronism. In August, JR (Ed): Consultations in feline internal medicine. Vol 6. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, pp:254
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