Tumor lysis syndrome

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Tumor lysis syndrome is an uncommon clinical disease of dogs characterized by spontaneous or chemotherapy-induced tumor lysis.

This disease occurs as a result of the release of tumor-associated intracellular products and their metabolites, sometimes leading to acute sepsis, shock and DIC which is sometimes fatal.

The precipitation of uric acid and calcium phosphate in the kidneys can lead to metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, acute uric acid nephropathy and acute renal injury[1], leading to fatal azotemia, arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation due to electrolyte disturbances.

In dogs, this condition is frequently associated with various forms of lymphoma[2].

In mild cases, judicious use of intravenous fluid therapy is required[3].

In severely affected dogs, renal dialysis may be required[4].

References

  1. Martin A & Acierno MJ (2010) Continuous renal replacement therapy in the treatment of acute kidney injury and electrolyte disturbances associated with acute tumor lysis syndrome. J Vet Intern Med 24(4):986-989
  2. Mylonakis ME et al (2007) Acute tumour lysis syndrome in a dog with B-Cell multicentric lymphoma. Aust Vet J 85(5):206-208
  3. Vickery KR & Thamm DH (2007) Successful treatment of acute tumor lysis syndrome in a dog with multicentric lymphoma. J Vet Intern Med 21(6):1401-1404
  4. Acierno MJ (2011) Continuous renal replacement therapy in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 41(1):135-146