Algal bloom poisoning
These organisms release a toxic cyanobacteria which can be lethal when large quantities are consumed.
Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:
Diagnosis is based on chemical analysis of vomitus using specific ELIZA tests, which usually contains > 5 x 103 μg/g of cyanobacterial dry-weight microcystin.
Postmortem lesions in dogs which have died include diffuse, acute, massive hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage, as well as acute necrosis of the renal tubular epithelium.
Treatment usually requires aggressive use of intravenous fluids, charcoal activated gastric lavage and cage rest.
- Lürling M & Faassen EJ (2013) Dog Poisonings Associated with a Microcystis aeruginosa Bloom in the Netherlands. Toxins (Basel) 5(3):556-567
- Harding WR et al (1995) Death of a dog attributed to the cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) hepatotoxin nodularin in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 66(4):256-259
- Walker SR et al (2008) Nebraska experience. Adv Exp Med Biol 619:139-152
- DeVries SE et al (1993) Clinical and pathologic findings of blue-green algae (Microcystis aeruginosa) intoxication in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 5(3):403-408
- van der Merwe D et al (2012) Investigation of a Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterial freshwater harmful algal bloom associated with acute microcystin toxicosis in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 24(4):679-687