Amyloidosis

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Gross appearance of a kidney from a Shar Pei which died from renal amyloidosis[1]

Amyloidosis is a relatively infrequent genetic or inflammatory disease of dogs.

Amyloid is produced due to aberrant misfolding of cellular protein, resulting in deposition of β-sheets of amyloid, a form of protein scar tissue. Depositions in cells is not normally pathogenic unless it interferes with normal organ function, and in dogs, these can occur in the heart, liver and kidney, resulting in failure of these organs.

Congenital renal amyloidosis is recognized in Shar-Pei dogs. Affected dogs usually present with weight loss, anorexia, icterus, lethargy, stranguria, and distal limb edema due to hypoproteinemia[2]. In this breed, serum creatinine concentration was significantly and negatively associated with survival[3].

Cutaneous amyloidosis occurs as primary localized form or secondary to systemic amyloidosis. In dogs, cutaneous amyloidosis is usually associated secondarily with localized plasma cell proliferation or cutaneous extramedullary plasmacytoma, but primary cutaneous amyloidosis has been reported in the Golden Retreiver[4].

Degenerative (age-related) amyloidosis in the meningeal and cortical arteries is common and usually nonpathological[5][6].

Renal amyloidosis is commonly seen with a number of infectious diseases, including:

Renal amyloidosis commonly results in nephrotic syndrome in severely affected dogs.

References

  1. Tufts University
  2. Flatland B et al (2007) Liver aspirate from a Shar Pei dog. Vet Clin Pathol 36(1):105-108
  3. Segev G et al (2012) Renal amyloidosis in dogs: a retrospective study of 91 cases with comparison of the disease between Shar-Pei and non-Shar-Pei dogs. J Vet Intern Med 26(2):259-268
  4. Woldemeskel M (2007) Primary localized nodular cutaneous amyloidosis in a male neutered Golden Retriever. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 114(12):473-475
  5. Pekcec A et al (2011) Age-dependent decline of blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein expression in the canine brain. Neurobiol Aging 32(8):1477-1485
  6. Chase K et al (2011) Age relationships of postmortem observations in Portuguese Water Dogs. Age (Dordr) 33(3):461-473
  7. Callegari D et al (2010) Canine bladderworm (Capillaria plica) infection associated with glomerular amyloidosis. Vet Parasitol 168(3-4):338-341