Antiemetic agents

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Anti-emetic are those drugs which mimimize or halt vomiting or regurgitation, as opposed to emetic agents such as apomorphine which induce vomiting.


Table 1. Antiemetic agents used in dogs:


Drugs Mechanism of action Dosage Indications
Chlorpromazine Dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonism 0.5 mg/kg IM q 8 hrs Sedation, motion sickness
Cimetidine H2 receptor antagonism 2.5 - 5.0 mg/kg IV q 8 hrs Chronic renal disease-associated emesis
Cisapride 5HT4 receptor antagonism 0.1 - 0.5 mg/kg PO q 12 - 24 hrs Irritable bowel disease-associated emesis, gastroparesis, megacolon
Cyclizine H2 receptor antagonism 4 mg/kg IM q 8hrs vomiting associated with travel
Dextromethorphan NMDA receptor antagonist 0.5 - 2.0 mg/kg orally q 6 - 8 hours motion sickness
Dimenhydrinate H1 receptor antagonism 12.5 mg/kg PO q 8 hrs Chronic renal disease
Diphenhydramine H1 receptor antagonism 2 - 4 mg/kg PO, IM q 8 hrs CNS depression, xerostomia
Dolasetron 5HT3 receptor antagonism 0.6 - 10 mg/kg IV, PO q 24 hrs Chemotherapy-associated emesis
Famotidine H2 receptor antagonism 0.5 mg/kg IV, PO q 12 - 24 hrs Chronic renal disease-associated emesis, pancreatitis
Granisetron 5HT3 receptor antagonism 0.1 - 0.5 mg/kg IV, PO q 12 - 24 hrs Chemotherapy-associated emesis
Ketamine NMDA receptor antagonist 0.5 - 2.0 mg/kg orally q 6 - 8 hours cisplatin-induced emesis
Lansoprazole Proton pump inhibitor 5 mg/kg orally once daily gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux
Maropitant NK1 receptor antagonism 0.5 - 1.0 mg/kg SQ q 24 hrs Chemotherapy-associated emesis, pancreatitis
Meclizine H1 receptor antagonism 4 mg/kg PO q 24 hrs Chronic renal disease-associated emesis
Metoclopramide Dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonism (CNS effects) 1 - 2 mg/kg IV infusion Gastroenteritis
Adrenergic antagonist (Prokinetic effects) 0.2 - 0.5 mg/kg PO, SQ q 8 hrs Chemotherapy-associated emesis, pancreatitis
Mirtazepine 5HT3 receptor antagonism, H1 receptor antagonism 3 - 4 mg/dog PO q 72 hrs Chronic renal disease-associated emesis, pancreatitis
Omeprazole Proton pump inhibitor 0.5 - 1.0 mg/kg orally once daily gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux
Ondansetron 5HT3 receptor antagonism 0.1 - 1.0 mg/kg PO q 12 - 24 hrs Chemotherapy-associated emesis
Prochlorperazine Mixed α12 antagonism; dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonism 0.1 mg/kg IM q 6 - 12 hrs Pre-anaesthetic sedation, motion sickness
Promethazine H1 receptor antagonism 2 mg/kg PO or IM q 24 hrs Motion sickness
Ranitidine H2 receptor antagonism 2 mg/kg/day continuous rate infusion; 2.5 mg/kg IV q 8 hrs Gastritis- and uraemia-associated emesis

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