Clinical signs associated with these tumors are usually non-specific or absent and diagnosis is made from diagnostic imaging and histopathologic examination.
Serum biochemical examination usually reveals elevated hepatobiliary enzymes (ALT, ALP, GGT and bile acids). Rarely, invasion or communication of bile ducts with biliary cystadenoma may result in pancreatitis.
Ultrasonography usually shows varying degrees of gall bladder enlargement with a visible large septated, multiloculated cystic mass in the right caudate liver lobe.
A fine-needle aspirate should be performed and fluid contents culture for microbial presence.
Histological features of biliary cystadenoma consist of a multilocular cyst lined with cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells and cellular stroma.
Diagnosis of biliary cystadenoma can be challenging and is one of exclusion because other cystic lesions, such as hepatic simple cyst, have a similar appearance.
Treatment usually requires complete surgical excision of biliary cystadenoma via lobectomy and is usually curative.
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