From Dog

Blepharitis refers to any inflammatory or infectious disease of the eyelid(s).

The eyelids and conjunctiva are immunologically active structures with an extensive presence of blood vessels, lymphatics, and immune cells.

Several immune-mediated phenomena can cause blepharitis, chelazion and conjunctivitis either in isolation or in association with systemic clinical features, such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca[1], canine juvenile cellulitis[2] and systemic lupus erythematosus[3].

Primary aseptic pyogranulomatous blepharitis has also been reported in the Dalmatian, responsive to prednisolone[4].

Secondary diseases include:

Depending on inciting cause, most cases respond to broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and immunosuppressive doses of glucocorticoids. Use of ophthalmic ointments may also be indicated.


  1. Whitley RD (2000) Canine and feline primary ocular bacterial infections. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 30(5):1151-1167
  2. Weingart C et al (2011) Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis in the dog. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 153(4):166-173
  3. Peña MA & Leiva M (2008) Canine conjunctivitis and blepharitis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 38(2):233-249
  4. Sansom J et al (2000) Pyogranulomatous blepharitis in two dogs. J Small Anim Pract 41(2):80-83
  5. Naranjo C et al (2010) Detection of Leishmania spp. and associated inflammation in ocular-associated smooth and striated muscles in dogs with patent leishmaniosis. Vet Ophthalmol 13(3):139-143
  6. Grahn BH & Sandmeyer LS (2010) Diagnostic ophthalmology. Can Vet J 51(3):327
  7. Donaldson D & Day MJ (2000) Epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) presenting as blepharoconjunctivitis in an Irish setter. J Small Anim Pract 41(7):317-320
  8. Reusch C et al (1994) Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome in an Akita-Inu dog. A case report. Tierarztl Prax 22(4):398-400
  9. Allgoewer I & Hoecht S (2010) Radiotherapy for canine chronic superficial keratitis using soft X-rays (15 kV). Vet Ophthalmol 13(1):20-25