Blepharitis refers to any inflammatory or infectious disease of the eyelid(s).
The eyelids and conjunctiva are immunologically active structures with an extensive presence of blood vessels, lymphatics, and immune cells.
Several immune-mediated phenomena can cause blepharitis, chelazion and conjunctivitis either in isolation or in association with systemic clinical features, such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, canine juvenile cellulitis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Secondary diseases include:
- Orbital cellulitis
- Demodex spp
- Sarcoptes spp
- Malassezia spp
- Leishmania spp infections
- Tarsal gland adenoma
- Epitheliotropic lymphoma
- Uveodermatologic syndrome
- Post-radiation therapy
Depending on inciting cause, most cases respond to broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and immunosuppressive doses of glucocorticoids. Use of ophthalmic ointments may also be indicated.
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