Calcium oxalate uroliths

From Dog

Calcium oxalate uroliths are a commonly reported cause of urolithiasis and cystitis in dogs.

Calcium oxalate uroliths have been increasing in frequency in dogs as is associated with the intake of a dry diet as the primary source of energy[1].

Calcium oxalate uroliths are also seen commonly with ethylene glycol intoxication.

While they may develop in any breed, Miniature Schnauzers, Lhasa Apsos, Yorkshire Terriers, Bichon Frise, Shih Tzus and Miniature Poodles may be predisposed[2].

Recurrence is a major problem with calcium oxalate uroliths. An 'ideal' diet is considered to be low oxalate, low protein, and low sodium, and would maintain urine pH at 6.5 - 7.5 and urine specific gravity <1.020. A few commercially available canned foods achieve these goals and may minimize the risk of recurrence.

Dietary calcium restriction and supplementation with potassium citrate and chlorothiazide may provide appropriate reductions in urine concentrations of calcium[3].


  1. Dijcker JC et al (2012) Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats. Vet Rec 171(2):46
  2. Roe K et al (2012) Analysis of 14,008 uroliths from dogs in the UK over a 10-year period. J Small Anim Pract Sep 8
  3. Lulich JP et al (2001) Effects of hydrochlorothiazide and diet in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 218(10):1583-1586