Primary chondrosarcoma and osteochondrosarcoma are malignant, slow-growing and locally invasive tumors of skeletal and extraskeletal cartilage and are the second most common primary bone tumor in dogs.
Chondrosarcomas may be primary, arising within a bone (central) or from the periosteum (peripheral), or secondary, arising by malignant change in osteochondromas. They can be found in large-breed dogs of any age, affecting the ribs, mammary gland, penile urethra, digit, tongue, kidney, liver, abdominal wall, scapula, skull, nasal cavity, pelvis, eye, heart, larynx, aorta, spleen and lungs.
Clinically affected dogs usually present with multiple soft-tissue masses in the affected area with regional swelling. When involving the limbs, lameness is a consistent finding.
Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, often associated with swelling in the surrounding tissue. Radiography may display osteolyis of neighboring bone and osteolytic regions associated with the tumor. Pulmonary radiographs are necessary to determine possible secondary metastases.
A definitive diagnosis requires histopathology, with characteristic chondrocytes with marked nuclear pleomorphism and a high mitotic rate. Histologically, two different types of chondrosarcoma are recognized: myxoid, the most common type found in skeletal tumors, and mesenchymal, a rarer type found more often in extraskeletal sites. Grading is usually given on a scale of 1 (mild) to 3 (aggressive).
Immunohistochemically, these tumors stain positively for vimentin, S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, calretinin, and chromogranin A.
Treatment usually involves wide-margin surgical resection and radiotherapy.
Appendicular chondrosarcoma can be treated effectively with amputation alone. Low to intermediate grade chondrosarcoma has a good prognosis, whereas high-grade tumors appear to behave aggressively.
Survival times following treatment range from 1 - 4 years.
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- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Lee BR et al (2011) Abdominal aortic chondrosarcoma in a dog. J Vet Med Sci 73(11):1473-1476
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- ↑ Díaz-Bertrana C et al (2010) Extra- and intra-articular synovial chondromatosis and malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 23(4):277-283
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- ↑ Halfacree ZJ et al (2007) Use of a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for one-stage reconstruction of the thoracic wall after en bloc resection of primary rib chondrosarcoma in five dogs. Vet Surg 36(6):587-592
- ↑ Davis GJ & Holt D (2003) Two chondrosarcomas in the urethra of a German shepherd dog. J Small Anim Pract 44:169–171
- ↑ Chikata S et al (2006) Primary chondrosarcoma in the liver of a dog. Vet Pathol 43(6):1033-1036
- ↑ Norton C et al (2006) Subtotal scapulectomy as the treatment for scapular tumour in the dog: a report of six cases. Aust Vet J 84(10):364-366
- ↑ Kim H et al (2007) Primary chondrosarcoma in the skull of a dog. J Vet Sci 8(1):99-101
- ↑ Ling GV et al (1974) Primary bone tumors in the dog: A combined clinical, radiographic and histologic approach to early diagnosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 165:55
- ↑ Rodrigues EF et al (2009) Metastatic intraocular chondrosarcoma in a dog. Vet Ophthalmol 12(4):254-258
- ↑ Dupuy-Mateos A et al (2008) Primary cardiac chondrosarcoma in a paced dog. Vet Rec 163(9):272-273
- ↑ Muraro L et al (2012) Successful management of an arytenoid chondrosarcoma in a dog. J Small Anim Pract Oct 8
- ↑ Miller JM et al (2005) Primary splenic mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in a dog. Can Vet J 46(2):163-165
- ↑ Brodey RS et al (1974) Canine skeletal chondrosarcoma: A clinicopathologic study of 35 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 165:68
- ↑ Aeffner F et al (2012) Synovial Osteochondromatosis With Malignant Transformation to Chondrosarcoma in a Dog. Vet Pathol Jan 27
- ↑ Kojima D et al (2012) Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with systemic metastasis in a five-month-old irish setter dog. J Vet Med Sci 74(8):1045-1049
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- ↑ Lindsay N et al (2010) Imaging diagnosis--spinal cord chondrosarcoma associated with spirocercosis in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 51(6):614-616
- ↑ Farese JP et al (2009) Biologic behavior and clinical outcome of 25 dogs with canine appendicular chondrosarcoma treated by amputation: a Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology retrospective study. Vet Surg 38(8):914-919
- ↑ Waltman SS et al (2007) Clinical outcome of nonnasal chondrosarcoma in dogs: thirty-one cases (1986-2003). Vet Surg 36(3):266-271