Colony stimulating factor

From Dog

Colony stimulating factor is an endogenous inflammatory cytokine which is released during inflammation and binds to receptor proteins on the surfaces of hemopoietic stem cells, thereby activating leucocyte production[1].

In dogs, this cytokine is normally produced in response to inflammatory states or neoplasia[2], resulting in an increased circulatory level of specific leukocytes.

A recombinant canine granulocyte colony stimulating factor has been produced which mimics this endogenous cytokine. Its effects are mitigated by use of exogenous interferon[3].

Recombinant colony stimulating factor is primarily used in canine medicine for treatment of various forms of neutropenia such as cyclic neutropenia in Collie dogs[4] and following whole body irradiation[5] or myeloablative chemotherapy and prior to autologous bone marrow transplantation in dogs with lymphoma[6].

Use of this drug is contraindicated in inflammatory diseases of dogs where endogenous levels are already elevated, such as osteoarthritis, immune-mediated diseases, nephritis, mitral valve endocardiosis[7], keratitis[8] or ketoacidosis associated with diabetes mellitus[9].

Recommended dose rate for treatment of cyclic neutropenia is 2.5 - 5.0 mg/kg (3 x 107 IU/kg) given intramuscularly every 2 weeks for 6 weeks[10].

For severe neutropenia or in post-chemotherapy lymphoma, recommended dose rate is 5 μg/kg every 8 - 12 hours for 7 days.

few side-effects have been reported with this drug[11].


  1. Chen Y et al (2011) Immunomodulatory effects induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin with donor peripheral blood mononuclear cell infusion in canine major histocompatibility complex-haplo-identical non-myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation. Cytotherapy 13(10):1269-1280
  2. Petterino C et al (2011) Paraneoplastic leukocytosis in a dog with a renal carcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol 40(1):89-94
  3. Shibata S et al (2011) Effect of recombinant canine interferon-γ on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, transforming growth factor-β and CC chemokine ligand 17 mRNA transcription in a canine keratinocyte cell line (CPEK). Vet Dermatol 22(1):24-30
  4. Yanay O et al (2006) An adult dog with cyclic neutropenia treated by lentivirus- mediated delivery of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Hum Gene Ther 17(4):464-469
  5. Li M et al (2011) High dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances survival and hematopoietic reconstruction in canines irradiated by 2.3 Gy mixed fission neutron and gamma ray. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 19(4):991-998
  6. Lane AE et al (2012) Use of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prior to autologous bone marrow transplantation in dogs with lymphoma. Am J Vet Res 73(6):894-899
  7. Zois NE et al (2012) Circulating cytokine concentrations in dogs with different degrees of myxomatous mitral valve disease. Vet J 192(1):106-111
  8. Kimura T et al (2012) Production of GM-CSF mediated by cysteine protease of Der f in canine keratinocytes. J Vet Med Sci 74(8):1033-1036
  9. O'Neill S et al (2012) Evaluation of cytokines and hormones in dogs before and after treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and in uncomplicated diabetes mellitus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 148(3-4):276-283
  10. Yanay O et al (2012) Repeated lentivirus-mediated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to treat canine cyclic neutropenia. Hum Gene Ther 23(11):1136-1143
  11. Yamamoto A et al (2011) Recombinant canine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor accelerates recovery from cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia in dogs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 142(3-4):271-275