Endocarditis (endocardiosis) refers to any inflammatory or infectious heart disease associated with the inner layer of the canine heart muscle.
- Surgical procedures within the previous 3 months, including dental prophylaxis
- Bacterial diseases
- - Streptococcus canis
- - Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus lugdunensis
- - Escherichia coli
- - Enterococcus spp
- - Pasteurella spp
- - Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii, Bartonella koehlerae, Bartonella rochalimae - often involve aortic valve
- - Serratia marcescens (nosocomial)
- - Acinetobacter baumannii
- - Blastomyces dermatitidis - also associated with pericarditis and myocarditis
- - Candida albicans
- - Congenital heart defects with secondary aseptic endocarditis due to degenerative and sclerotic changes - e.g. mitral valve endocardiosis, ventricular septal defect
- - Periodontitis
- - Extraskeletal osteosarcoma
Bacterial endocarditis is a disease of primarily middle-aged to older, large-breed dogs that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aortic valve is particularly predisposed to vegetative disease in larger breeds.
Regardless of the underlying cause, endocarditis results in impairment to myocardial contractility and functionality, leading to cardiac irregularities, murmurs and, in severe cases, congestive heart failure.
Lameness caused by immune-mediated polyarthritis, septic arthritis, or hypertrophic osteoarthropathy are common complications with Streptococcus canis. Vascular encephalopathy is sometimes noted.
Dogs with endocarditis secondary to Bartonella spp infection were often afebrile, more likely to develop congestive heart failure, rarely had mitral valve involvement, and had shorter survival times.
Symptoms are characterized by poor cardiac function, relating to exercise intolerance, an auscultatable heart murmur, ascites if pulmonary venous hypertension exists and dyspnea.
Diagnosis usually requires echocardiography, radiographs and ECG testing. Blood cultures require PCR identification to identify noncontaminant bacteria.
Treatment requires addressing the underlying etiology and pathology. Long-term treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics may contribute to the timely treatment of the disease.
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- UC Davis
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