Enterobacter spp

From Dog
Enterobacter spp on agar culture

Enterobacter spp are a Gram -ve anaerobic proteobacteria normally found in the skin and gastrointestinal microflora of dogs[1].

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Enterobacter cloacae[2]
  • Enterobacter hormaechei[3]

These bacteria rarely cause disease in dogs, but have been associated with pancreaticobiliary duct infections[4], nosocomial infections such as cystitis[5][6] associated with urinary catheterization[7] and post-operative empyemas[8].

Zoonotic infections in humans have been attributed to these bacteria, which are normal residents of the canine oropharynx[9].

Enterobacter spp are multidrug resistant, but appear to be sensitive to amoxycillin/clavulanate and chloramphenicol[10].


  1. Zachary D et al (2011) Cutaneous mucormycosis complicating a polymicrobial wound infection following a dog bite. Case Rep Infect Dis 2011:348046
  2. Weese JS (2008) Investigation of Enterobacter cloacae infections at a small animal veterinary teaching hospital. Vet Microbiol 130(3-4):426-428
  3. Sidjabat HE et al (2007) Identification of plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum and AmpC beta-lactamases in Enterobacter spp. isolated from dogs. J Med Microbiol 56(3):426-434
  4. Qian D et al (1993) Mutagenicity of the bile of dogs with an experimental model of an anomalous arrangement of the pancreaticobiliary duct. Carcinogenesis 14(4):743-747
  5. Marsh-Ng ML et al (2007) Surveillance of infections associated with intravenous catheters in dogs and cats in an intensive care unit. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 43(1):13-20
  6. Bubenik LJ et al (2007) Frequency of urinary tract infection in catheterized dogs and comparison of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing results for catheterized and noncatheterized dogs with urinary tract infections. J Am Vet Med Assoc 231(6):893-899
  7. Bubenik L & Hosgood G (2008) Urinary tract infection in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation and urinary bladder dysfunction managed by manual expression, indwelling catheterization or intermittent catheterization. Vet Surg 37(8):791-800
  8. De Stefani A et al (2008) Magnetic resonance imaging features of spinal epidural empyema in five dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 49(2):135-140
  9. Saphir DA & Carter GR (1976) Gingival flora of the dog with special reference to bacteria associated with bites. J Clin Microbiol 3(3):344-349
  10. Gibson JS et al (2008) Multidrug-resistant E. coli and enterobacter extraintestinal infection in 37 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 22(4):844-850