Entropion

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Entropion and secondary conjunctivitis in a Shar Pei[1]

Entropion is a relatively common genetic disease of dogs characterized by an inwardly rolling eyelid.

The opposite to entropion is ectropion, an outward rolling of the eyelids.

Entropion results in facial hair coming into contact with the cornea or conjunctiva or both. Medial entropion tends to be more common in brachycephalic breeds with prominent nasal folds.

Distichiasis and ocular dermoids may occur concurrent complication in some dogs[2].

Entropion condition, although reported in most breeds, is more common in the Rottweiler, Bull Mastiff, Labrador Retriever[3], Pekingese, Maltese, Toy Poodle, Shar Pei and Pug[4].

This abnormality in eyelid position and function can lead to chronic irritation of cornea and conjunctiva. Corneal ulceration, vascularization and pigmentation are common consequences. Loss of vision, or loss of the globe may be the end result. The combination of ptosis and entropion of the upper eyelid is commonly seen in breeds with abundant forehead skin folds[5].

Depending on severity and duration, affected dogs present with either unilateral or bilateral conjunctivitis, epiphora, chemosis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca[6].

Treatment aims at surgically correcting the defect, using either a fornix-based suture placement[7] or medial canthoplasty, which are curative procedures in most cases. A temporary lateral tarrsorhaphy may be performed in juvenile dogs prior to later corrective surgery[8].

In the Shar Pei and Bloodhounds, brow suspension is usually required for treatment of ptosis and entropion with redundant facial skin folds[9][10].

Although a lateral canthoplasty is technically easier to perform, a medial canthoplasty is the preferred method of eyelid shortening.

References

  1. Colorado Great Pyrenees rescue
  2. Christmas RE (1992) Common ocular problems of Shin Tzu dogs. Can Vet J 33(6):390-393
  3. Read RA & Broun HC (2007) Entropion correction in dogs and cats using a combination Hotz-Celsus and lateral eyelid wedge resection: results in 311 eyes. Vet Ophthalmol 10(1):6-11
  4. Yi NY et al (2006) Medial canthoplasty for epiphora in dogs: a retrospective study of 23 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 42(6):435-439
  5. van der Woerdt A (2004) Adnexal surgery in dogs and cats. Vet Ophthalmol 7(5):284-290
  6. Peña TM & García FA (1999) Reconstruction of the eyelids of a dog using grafts of oral mucosa. Vet Rec 144(15):413-415
  7. Williams DL (2004) Entropion correction by fornix-based suture placement: use of the Quickert-Rathbun technique in ten dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 7(5):343-347
  8. Lewin GA (2000) Temporary lateral tarsorrhaphy for the treatment of lower lateral eyelid entropion in juvenile dogs. Vet Rec 146(15):439-440
  9. Willis AM et al (1999) Brow suspension for treatment of ptosis and entropion in dogs with redundant facial skin folds. J Am Vet Med Assoc 214(5):660-662
  10. McCallum P & Welser J (2004) Coronal rhytidectomy in conjunction with deep plane walking sutures, modified Hotz-Celsus and lateral canthoplasty procedure in a dog with excessive brow droop. Vet Ophthalmol 7(5):376-379
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