From Dog
Gingival hyperplasia in a 7-year-old Dachshund treated with cyclosporin for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia[1]
Acanthomatous epulis due to ameloblastoma in the rostral mandible, displacing adjacent teeth[2]

Epulis (Peripheral odontogenic fibroma) is a nonspecific term that refers to any localized, exophytic growth on the gingiva.

These growths are visually indistinguishable from gingival hyperplasia.

Epulides are a benign tumour that arise from the periodontal ligament and are categorized based on on the degree of mineralization.

A number of odontogenic tumors have been described in the veterinary literature:

Long-term cyclosporin[1] and amlodipine[8] use have been attributed as a cause of subgingival proliferative disease.

Clinically affected dogs usually present with varying degrees of dysphagia, halitosis, gum bleeding and ptyalism. Visually confirmed growths can be observed, which is usually the primary reason for presentation at a veterinary clinic.

Diagnosis is usually based on visual inspection and radiography of the facial region (usually shows soft-tissue opacity in the the gingiva region with varying degrees of mineralization), but histological analysis is usually definitive[9].

A differential diagnosis would include squamous cell carcinoma, papillomatosis, maxillary hemangioma[10], odontoma[11], bone cysts and melanoma.

Treatment usually requires surgical extirpation of the lesions, sometimes requiring mandibulectomy with adjunct radiation in severe cases[12].


  1. 1.0 1.1 Namikawa K et al (2012) Gingival overgrowth in a dog that received long-term cyclosporine for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Can Vet J 53(1):67-70
  2. Mayer MN & Anthony JM (2007) Radiation therapy for oral tumors: canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. Can Vet J 48(1):99-101
  3. Saldanha DV et al (2012) Periodontal response to subgingival restorations in dogs with periodontitis. Acta Odontol Latinoam 25(1):45-52
  4. Arzi B et al (2011) Expression of cytokeratins in the epithelium of canine odontogenic tumours. J Comp Pathol 145(4):345-351
  5. Gardner DG (1996) Epulides in the dog: a review. J Oral Pathol Med 25(1):32-37
  6. Desoutter AV et al (2012) Clinical and histologic features of 26 canine peripheral giant cell granulomas (formerly giant cell epulis). Vet Pathol 49(6):1018-1023
  7. Verstraete FJ et al (2011) Clinical signs and histologic findings in dogs with odontogenic cysts: 41 cases (1995?2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 239(11):1470-1476
  8. Pariser MS & Berdoulay P (2011) Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in a Great Dane. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 47(5):375-376
  9. Verstraete FJ et al (1992) The histological nature of epulides in dogs. J Comp Pathol 106(2):169-182
  10. Hansen D et al (2010) Intraosseous maxillary hemangioma in an immature Bassett Hound. J Vet Dent 27(4):234-241
  11. Papadimitriou S et al (2005) Compound maxillary odontoma in a young German shepherd dog. J Small Anim Pract 46(3):146-150
  12. Hörsting N et al (1998) Oropharyngeal tumors of dogs--a clinical study of 79 cases. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 111(7-8):242-247