Familial stomatocytosis-hypertrophic gastritis

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Familial stomatocytosis-hypertrophic gastritis (Ménétrier syndrome) is a genetic disease of dogs characterized by hypertrophic gastritis and stomatocytosis[1].

Although canine stomatocytosis has been described in purebred Alaskan Malamutes, Drentse Patrijshonds and Miniature Schnauzers[2], stomatocytosis-hypertrophic gastritis has mainly been reported in the Drentse Patrijshond[3] and West Highland White Terrier and Old English Sheepdog[4].

Gastric carcinoma has been reported associated with Menetrier's-like disease in the West Highland White Terrier[5].

Affected dogs usually present with a history of chronic vomiting, diarrhoea, icterus, ataxia, paresis, mild regenerative anemia and hypoalbuminaemia. In addition to hypertrophic gastritis, affected dogs exhibit abnormal blood phospholipid composition.

Biochemical analysis of stomach lining in this condition has shown that the general phospholipid composition and the molecular composition of phosphatidylcholine from mucosal tissue in the corpus of the stomach where hypertrophic gastritis was evident is not significantly different from normal gastric, suggesting only a weak correlation between gastric mucosal phospholipid composition and hypertrophic gastritis[6].

A differential diagnosis would include other causes of gastritis such as lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, lymphoma, mast cell tumor and Helicobacter spp infection, as well as gastrinoma[7].

There is no known treatment for this hereditary condition and therapy is usually symptomatic.

References

  1. Slappendel RJ et al (1994) Normal cations and abnormal membrane lipids in the red blood cells of dogs with familial stomatocytosis-hypertrophic gastritis. Blood 84(3):904-909
  2. Bonfanti U et al (2004) Stomatocytosis in 7 related Standard Schnauzers. Vet Clin Pathol 33(4):234-239
  3. Slappendel RJ et al (1991) Familial stomatocytosis - hypertrophic gastritis (FSHG), a newly recognised disease in the dog (Drentse patrijshond). Vet Q 13(1):30-40
  4. Rallis TS et al (2007) Giant hypertrophic gastritis (Menetrier's-like disease) in an Old English sheepdog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 43(2):122-127
  5. Lecoindre P et al (2012) Gastric carcinoma associated with Menetrier's-like disease in a West Highland white terrier. J Small Anim Pract 53(12):714-718
  6. Renooij W et al (1996) Gastric mucosal phospholipids in dogs with familial stomatocytosis-hypertrophic gastritis. Eur J Clin Invest 26(12):1156-1159
  7. Zerbe CA et al (1989) Pancreatic polypeptide and insulin-secreting tumor in a dog with duodenal ulcers and hypertrophic gastritis. J Vet Intern Med 3(3):178-182
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