Flunixin

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Flunixin meglumine is a NSAID similar in action to tolfenamic acid, having anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

This drug is not commonly used in canine medicine compared with other NSAIDs but has been used for post-operative pain relief, acute gastric injuries associated with endotoxemia (e.g. intussusception, gastric dilation-volvulus).

Used as a topical drug in acute uveitis, it has potent anti-inflammatory effects compared with other drugs such as carprofen or meloxicam[1].

Due to its potents COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities[2], flunixin should be given for less than 5 days to minimize side-effects.

Prolonged used is associated with gastroenteritis, hepatotoxicity, coagulopathy and acute renal injury[3], characterized by elevated GGT, gastritis and prolonged prothrombin and partial prothrombin clotting times[4].

These side-effects, together with prolonged excretion rates are commonly observed with concurrent use of enrofloxacin or other fluoroquinolone antimicrobials[5].

Recommended dose rate in dogs is 0.5 - 2.2 mg/kg given intramuscularly or subcutaneously once daily for 3 days, then repeated after 4 days.

References

  1. Gilmour MA & Payton ME (2012) Comparison of the effects of IV administration of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin E(2) concentration in aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis. Am J Vet Res 73(5):698-703
  2. Lees P et al (2004) PK-PD integration and PK-PD modelling of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: principles and applications in veterinary pharmacology. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 27(6):491-502
  3. KuKanich B et al (2012) Clinical pharmacology of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 39(1):69-90
  4. Luna SP et al (2007) Evaluation of adverse effects of long-term oral administration of carprofen, etodolac, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and meloxicam in dogs. Am J Vet Res 68(3):258-264
  5. Ogino T et al (2005) Pharmacokinetic interactions of flunixin meglumine and enrofloxacin in dogs. Am J Vet Res 66(7):1209-1213
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