These cysts can be multiple or single and usually circular spheres located in the anterior or posterior chambers. They can be adherent or free-floating and arise from the ciliary body, iridociliary sulcus or posterior iris.
Uveal cysts often develop as a congenital disease but can form secondary to ocular trauma and intraocular inflammation. They slowly increase in size over time and sometimes rupture, leading to deposition of contents onto the corneal endothelium or iris.
This disease is commonly reported in the Boston Terrier, Golden Retriever, Great Dane and American Bulldog breeds and is a relatively rare cause of cataracts, anterior uveitis, retinal detachment and corneal pigmentation in dogs.
Uveal cysts commonly form in middle-aged to older dogs and are readily diagnosed with ophthalmoscopy after application of a mydriatic drug. It is not uncommon to examine a dog with signs of cyst rupture but no other ocular abnormalities.
Gonioscopy should be performed regularly to monitor any changes, or signs of increased intraocular pressure and intraocular inflammation. Clinicians should exercise caution in dismissing uveal cysts in dogs as incidental findings.
Treatment usually involves surgical removal via paracentesis, sclerotomy or semiconductor diode laser coagulation.
Recurrence is uncommon.
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