Klebsiella spp

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Small intestine from a Bordeaux mastiff with Klebsiella pneumoniae enteritis and sepsis. Note diffuse reddening with hemorrhage on the serosal surface. The mucosa is thickened and covered by fibrinonecrotic exudate[1]

Klebsiella spp are a Gram negative proteobacteria involved in a wide range of canine diseases such as pneumonia[2], otitis externa[3], cystitis[4], prostatitis[5], meningoencephalomyelitis[6], cholangiophepatitis[7][8] and pyoderma.

Klebsiella are part of the normal canine skin and intestinal microflora[9].

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella spp are the second most common cause of canine cystitis[10][11]. They are also reported in canine mastitis[12]. Neonatal puppies are particularly predisposed to infections, with sources of infection including the environment, vaginal discharge, maternal faeces, oropharynx and skin[13].

Systemic infections in dogs are common with this bacteria, which can present with mutiorgan dysfunction.

Treatment soften require aggressive antimicrobial therapy and supportive treatment for pneumonia[14].

Resistance to enrofloxacin is common[15] but these bacteria are sensitive to ibafloxacin[16].

References

  1. Roberts, DE et al (2000) An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in dogs with severe enteritis and septicemia. J Vet Diagn Invest 12:168–173
  2. Haenni M et al (2012) Veterinary hospital-acquired infections in pets with a ciprofloxacin-resistant CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST15 clone. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Mar;67(3):770-1
  3. Brothers AM et al (2002) Development of resistant bacteria isolated from dogs with otitis externa or urinary tract infections after exposure to enrofloxacin in vitro. Vet Ther 3(4):493-500
  4. Gatoria IS et al (2006) Comparison of three techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections in dogs with urolithiasis. J Small Anim Pract 47(12):727-732
  5. White RA & Williams JM (1995) Intracapsular prostatic omentalization: a new technique for management of prostatic abscesses in dogs. Vet Surg 24(5):390-395
  6. Radaelli ST & Platt SR (2012) Bacterial meningoencephalomyelitis in dogs: a retrospective study of 23 cases (1990-1999). J Vet Intern Med 16(2):159-163
  7. Forrester SD et al (1992) Cholangiohepatitis in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 200(11):1704-1706
  8. Farrar ET et al (1996) Hepatic abscesses in dogs: 14 cases (1982-1994). J Am Vet Med Assoc 208(2):243-247
  9. Kasempimolporn S et al (2003) Oral bacterial flora of dogs with and without rabies: a preliminary study in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 86(12):1162-1166
  10. Ling GV et al (2001) Interrelations of organism prevalence, specimen collection method, and host age, sex, and breed among 8,354 canine urinary tract infections (1969-1995). J Vet Intern Med 15(4):341-347
  11. Johnson, JR et al (2003) Identification of urovirulence traits in Escherichia coli by comparison of urinary and rectal E. coli isolates from dogs with urinary tract infection. 'J Clin Microbiol 41:337-345
  12. Schäfer-Somi S et al (2003) Bacteriological status of canine milk and septicaemia in neonatal puppies--a retrospective study. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 50(7):343-346
  13. Münnich A (2008) The pathological newborn in small animals: the neonate is not a small adult. Vet Res Commun 32(1):S81-S85
  14. Cavana P et al(2009) Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in a dog with Klebsiella pneumoniae septicemia. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 151(2):69-74
  15. Grobbel M et al (2007) Antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. from various organ systems of horses, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 120(9-10):402-411
  16. Coulet M et al (2005) Pharmacodynamics of ibafloxacin in micro-organisms isolated from cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 28(1):29-36
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