Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy is an immune-mediated skin disease of the claw of dogs characterized by separation and sloughing of several claws from claw beds and ultimately affecting all claws.
The pathogenesis of onychodystrophy is incompletely elucidated, but allergic, infectious and immune-mediated diseases have all been associated with symmetrical onychomadesis. The lupoid reaction observed histopathologically and the clinical signs of onychomadesis represent an immune-mediated disease of the claw, rather than an actual triggering event of the disease.
This condition presents primarily as a disease of the claws of affected dogs and most dogs present with pad tenderness and lameness. Initially, separation of claw from claw bed and subsequent sloughing is noted on one or more claws, but within two to three months all claws might be affected. Re-growth results in dystrophic claws, brittle, crumbling and misshapen claws.
Histological features of this condition include bandlike mononuclear infiltrates with interface dermatitis changes, including basal cell hydropic degeneration, degeneration or necrosis of individual keratinocytes in the basal cell layer, and pigmentary incontinence.
Treatment with immunosuppressive drugs such as prednisolone have been successful as well as fatty acid supplementation suggesting an autoimmune aetiology of the disease. In one study, cyclosporine and fish oil appeared to be equally effective in treating symmetrical onychomadesis. There are various sources of omega-3 and omega-6 available commercially such as Paw Dermega.
Some cases require life-long therapy and intermittent relapses are common.
- ↑ Grassmere Animal hospital
- ↑ Auxilia ST et al (2001) Canine symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy: a retrospective study with particular reference to management. J Small Anim Pract 42(2):82-87
- ↑ Mueller RS et al (2000) Diagnosis of canine claw disease - a prospective study of 24 dogs. Vet Dermatol 11:133–141
- ↑ Ziener ML et al (2008) Symmetrical onychomadesis in Norwegian Gordon and English setters. Vet Dermatol 19(2):88-94
- ↑ Wilbe M et al (2010) DLA class II alleles are associated with risk for canine symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO). PLoS One 5(8):e12332
- ↑ Carlotti DN (1990) Canine hereditary black hair follicular dysplasia and colour mutant alopecia: Clinical and histopathological aspects. Adv Vet Derm 1:43–46
- ↑ Scott DW et al (1995) Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy in dogs: a retrospective analysis of 18 cases (1989-1993). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31(3):194-201
- ↑ Ovrebo Bohnhorst J et al (2001) Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in Gordon setters with symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and black hair follicular dysplasia. Acta Vet Scand 42:323–329
- ↑ Mueller RS et al (2004) Immunohistochemical evaluation of mononuclear infiltrates in canine lupoid onychodystrophy. Vet Pathol 41(1):37-43
- ↑ Scott DW et al (1995) Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy in dogs: a retrospective analysis of 18 cases (1989–1993). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc '31:194–200
- ↑ Mueller RS et al (2003) A Retrospective Study Regarding the Treatment of Lupoid Onychodystrophy in 30 Dogs and Literature Review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39:139–150
- ↑ Bergvall K (1998) Treatment of symmetrical lupoid onychomadesis and onychodystrophy in five dogs with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Vet Dermatol 9:263–268
- ↑ Ziener ML & Nødtvedt A (2014) A treatment study of canine symmetrical onychomadesis (symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy) comparing fish oil and cyclosporine supplementation in addition to a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Acta Vet Scand 56(1):66