Lymphangiosarcoma are a rare malignant neoplasm of lymphatic endothelial cells in subcutaneous tissue.
These tumors are commonly aggressive in nature, with metastases commonly observed in regional lymph nodes and lungs, as well as involving localized superficial and deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Primary lesions are seen in the inguinal region, internal organs and skin.
The tumour has been reported mostly in medium- to large-breed dogs, in slightly more males than females, and in an age-range of 8 weeks to 13 years, with more cases aged 5 years and older. They usually appear as depressed, ulcerated and firm nodules which can be found associated with the mammary gland, vagina, urethra and retroperitoneal tissues. Septic arthritis, lymphedema and chylothorax are commonly observed with this disease.
The most common initial clinical finding is a localized swelling or mass, with edema of the skin and underlying tissues. Metastasis is common, often leading to wide dissemination and rapid progression of disease.
Diagnosis is based on histopathology of biopsied material. These tumors have characteristic spindle-shaped cells arranging in solid sheaths around vascular channels.
A definitive diagnosis requires immunohistochemistry.
Treatment usually involves radical wide-margin resection augmented with radiation therapy. Diuretics such as furosemide may be required for palliative relief of lymphedema.
- Uni of Pennsylvania
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