Metabolic alkalosis, defined as a venous pH > 8.0, is relatively uncommon in dogs.
The opposite condition is metabolic acidosis.
Metabolic alkalosis is characterized by an increase in plasma bicarbonate concentration < 24 mEq/L, with low H+ concentrations, high pH and a compensatory increase in CO2 tension.
It occurs as a result of loss of Cl- and H+ ion-rich fluids from the alimentary tract or kidneys and is usually accompanied by volume depletion.
- Normal postprandial alkaline tide
- Vomiting due to gastric disorders - e.g. gastritis, gastric foreign bodies
- Acute sepsis, endotoxemia
- Oral administration of bicarbonates or phosphate binders
- Exercise-induced collapse
- Drugs - large doses of sodium penicillin or carbenicillin
Diagnosis is often based on hematological findings, augmented with blood gas analysis for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of both metabolic and respiratory alkalosis.
Treatment usually requires administration of 0.9% saline solutions with adjunctive KCl. Patients with concurrent hypokalemia may require larger doses of KCl.
- The Valiens
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