Necrotizing sialometaplasia

From Dog
Lobular necrosis of minor palatal salivary glands adjacent to intact salivary gland lobules.[1]

Necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland necrosis) is an immune-mediated disease characterized by a self-limiting, benign ischemia of the submandibular salivary glands with clinical and histologic features that resemble malignancy[2]. It is a fairly rare disease of the canine salivary gland[3].

Small terrier breeds appear predisposed[4].

The cause of this disease remains obscure, although Spirocerca lupi[5], Bartonella spp[6], Giardia spp infestation, megaoesophagus and oesophagitis, oesophageal diverticulum and sialadenitis are often concurrently involved[7].

Clinically affected dogs often present with unilateral swelling of the parotid salivary gland. A protracted history of inappetance, gagging, retching, regurgitation and vomiting are common[8].

Younger dogs appear more predisposed[9], and concurrent otitis externa is common.

Histological examination usually reveals lobular necrosis of salivary tissue and marked squamous metaplasia.


  1. Clinical Practice
  2. Kim HY et al (2010) Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the parotid gland in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 22(6):975-977
  3. Spangler WL & Culbertson MR (1991) Salivary gland disease in dogs and cats: 245 cases (1985-1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 198(3):465-469
  4. Brooks DG et al (1995) Canine necrotizing sialometaplasia: a case report and review of the literature. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31(1):21-25
  5. Mylonakis ME et al (2008) Canine spirocercosis. Compend Contin Educ Vet 30(2):111-116
  6. Saunders GK & Monroe WE (2006) Systemic granulomatous disease and sialometaplasia in a dog with Bartonella infection. Vet Pathol 43(3):391-392
  7. Schroeder H & Berry WL (1998) Salivary gland necrosis in dogs: a retrospective study of 19 cases. J Small Anim Pract 39(3):121-125
  8. Cooke MM & Guilford WG (1992) Salivary gland necrosis in a wire-haired fox terrier. N Z Vet J 40(2):69-72
  9. Mawby DI et al (1991) Vasculitis and necrosis of the mandibular salivary glands and chronic vomiting in a dog. Can Vet J 32(9):562-564