Inflammation may be a result of inflammatory processes associated with tissue damage or infections by bacteria, resulting in swelling of the orbit, exophthalmos and sometimes abscess formation and septicemia.
- Blunt or penetrating trauma to the eye, foreign body
- Carnassial tooth-root abscess
- Retrobulbar abscess
- - bacterial - especially Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas spp and Prevotella bivia
- - fungal - usually have concomitant ulcerative keratitis and episcleritis
- Retrobulbar neoplasia - primarily osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and nasal adenocarcinoma
- Orbital hematoma
- Salivary mucocele
- Arteriovenous fistula
- Masticatory muscle myositis
- Toxocara canis visceral larval migrans
Clinically affected dogs usually present with a swollen eye (usually just distended due to retropulsive pressure from socket swelling), fever, tenderness of the area and pain or reluctance when attempting to open the mouth. In dogs with chronic swelling over 4 - 5 days, abscessation may be evident, leading to discharge at the skin surface, usually just below the eye. The eye may be swollen, with blepharospasm and chemosis.
Diagnosis usually requires radiographic or ultrasonographic imaging studies to determine the presence of a foreign body, tumor or tooth-root abscess. Serology may be required to eliminate other parasitic causes. A fine-needle biopsy is usually required to ascertain the presence of fluid or pus, followed by cultured and sensitivity if required.
Treatment is usually aimed at palliative care initially prior to diagnosis, with anti-inflammatory drugs such as meloxicam and in cases of abscess formation, drainage under sedation or general anesthesia.Surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and no foreign body was found.
The pterygopalatine fossa is often incised for release of contents and therapeutic retrobulbar drainage should be attempted. A drain is placed to encourage ventral drainage of abscesses.
- Your Own Vet
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