Affected dogs often present with inner ear disease characterized by acute unilateral deafness, head tilting to affected side, and in severe cases, vestibular disease characterized by nystagmus, circling, ataxia and seizures. Rare cases of Horner's syndrome have also been reported.
Treatment usually focuses on surgical exploration and ventral bulla osteotomy if indicated, followed by 1 - 3 months of antibiotic therapy. The choice of surgical procedure(s) should be based on the severity of the condition, duration of clinical signs, response to previous surgery, and the familiarity of the surgeon with the different approaches and techniques.
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