Pasteurella spp

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Pasteurella spp are a genus of zoonotic Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria

Pasteurella are small coccobacilli that are primarily natural saprophytic inhabitants of the skin, oral flora and digestive tract of dogs[1], but can be primary pathogens with a predilection for anaerobic site and a tendency to pus formation. The bacterium spreads from dog to dog by aerosols.

These bacteria are of zoonotic importance due to common infections of humans through bite wounds and licking of open wounds, resulting in cellulitis or septicemia[2].

In dogs, they are associated with a wide range of diseases from otitis externa to rhinitis, orbital abscess[3], septic arthritis[4], osteomyelitis[5], pyothorax[6], meningitis[7] and systemic pasteurellosis in puppies[8], depending on the etiological agent.

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

Several virulence factors have been described in Pasteurella spp, particularly dermonecrotoxin[19] and leukotoxin[20] which have been isolated from P haemolytica.

In systemic pasteurellosis of young dogs, disease consist mainly of hemorrhagic septicemia and pneumonia, which is often fatal[21].

Diagnosis is based on bacterial culture and PCR assay identification of species[22].

Several decades of clinical experiences with Pasteurella and numerous in vitro studies indicate that penicillin is the best antimicrobial agent for the treatment of virtually all forms of infection[23].

This group of bacteria also show sensitivity to β-lactams, amoxycillin/clavulanate, metronidazole[24], chloramphenicol, gentamicin, cefovecin[25] and fluorquinolones such as ciprofloxacin and pradofloxacin[26].

Severe or partially responding infections may necessitate hospitalization and parenteral antimicrobial administration, along with surgical intervention.

References

  1. Schwarz S et al (2007) Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica from dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 120(9-10):423-430
  2. Jüch M et al (2012) A 76-year-old dog owner with fever and dyspnea. Internist (Berl)' 53(9):1114-1118
  3. Wang AL et al (2009) Orbital abscess bacterial isolates and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in dogs and cats. Vet Ophthalmol 12(2):91-96
  4. Fitch RB et al (2003) Hematogenous septic arthritis in the dog: results of five patients treated nonsurgically with antibiotics. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39(6):563-566
  5. Csébi P et al (2010) Vertebral osteomyelitis and meningomyelitis caused by Pasteurella canis in a dog--clinicopathological case report. Acta Vet Hung 58(4):413-421
  6. Walker AL et al (2000) Bacteria associated with pyothorax of dogs and cats: 98 cases (1989-1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc 216(3):359-363
  7. Radaelli ST & Platt SR (2002) Bacterial meningoencephalomyelitis in dogs: a retrospective study of 23 cases (1990-1999). J Vet Intern Med 16(2):159-163
  8. de la Puente Redondo VA et al (2000) Systemic infection by Pasteurella canis biotype 1 in newborn puppies. J Comp Pathol 123(2-3):195-197
  9. Arumugam ND et al (2011) Capsular serotyping of Pasteurella multocida from various animal hosts - a comparison of phenotypic and genotypic methods. Trop Biomed 28(1):55-63
  10. De Stefani A et al (2008) Magnetic resonance imaging features of spinal epidural empyema in five dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 49(2):135-140
  11. Gemmill TJ (2008) What is your diagnosis? Epidural empyema. J Small Anim Pract 49(2):110-112
  12. Hunt Gerardo S et al (2001) Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica differentiation by PCR fingerprinting and alpha-glucosidase activity. J Clin Microbiol 39(7):2558-2564
  13. Donnio P Y (1994) Pasteurella. In: Freney J, Renaud F, Hansen W, Bollet C, editors. Manual of clinical bacteriology. 2nd ed. Paris, France: Elsevier. pp:1371–1395
  14. Zamankhan Malayeri H et al (2010) Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs. Vet Res Commun 34(5):435-444
  15. Akahane T et al (2011) A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella canis resulting from a dog bite - limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species. Eur J Med Res 16(12):531-536
  16. Riggio MP et al (2011) Molecular identification of bacteria associated with canine periodontal disease. Vet Microbiol 150(3-4):394-400
  17. Król J et al (2011) Polymerase chain reaction-based identification of clinically relevant Pasteurellaceae isolated from cats and dogs in Poland. J Vet Diagn Invest 23(3):532-537
  18. Christensen H et al (2012) Classification of Pasteurella species B as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62(6):1396-1401
  19. Ewers C et al (2006) Virulence genotype of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from different hosts with various disease status. Vet Microbiol 114(3-4):304-317
  20. Lo RY (1990) Molecular characterization of cytotoxins produced by Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Pasteurella. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 54:S33–S35
  21. Holmes B et al (1995) Unusual gram-negative bacteria, including Capnocytophaga, Eikenella, Pasteurella, and Streptobacillus. In: Murray P R, Baron E J, Pfaller M A, Tenover F C, Yolken R H, editors. Manual of clinical microbiology. 6th ed. Washington, D.C: American Society for Microbiology. pp:499–508
  22. Miflin JK & Blackall PJ (2001) Development of a 23S rRNA-based PCR assay for the identification of Pasteurella multocida. Lett Appl Microbiol 33(3):216-221
  23. Mandell GL et al (2005) Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th edition. New York, NY, USA: Churchill Livingstone. Pasteurella species. pp:2687–2691
  24. Jang SS et al(1997) Organisms isolated from dogs and cats with anaerobic infections and susceptibility to selected antimicrobial agents. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210(11):1610-1614
  25. Stegemann MR et al (2006) Antimicrobial activity and spectrum of cefovecin, a new extended- spectrum cephalosporin, against pathogens collected from dogs and cats in Europe and North America. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50(7):2286-2292
  26. Rashid NKet al (2012) Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report. Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2012:362369