Associated with prostatitis in entire dogs is reduced androgen receptor expression.
- age-related - common in older, entire dogs associated with prostatomegaly
- Urolithiasis or urethral trauma
- Miscellaneous causes
Bacterial infections are usually Gram-negative varieties and release endotoxin, resulting in inflammation. With time, the interstitial response will become more obvious, with lymphocytes and plasma cells predominating. This interstitial phase will also be accompanied with fibrosis.
Clinical signs in dogs are variable or absent, but can include haematuria, dysuria and fever if acute severe prostatitis. Preputial discharge and preputial edema have also been reported.
Most cases present histologically with chronic lymphocytic or lymphoplasmocytic changes. Many dogs have foci of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues), suggesting that subclinical infection may be common.
Treatment of canine prostatitis is cause-dependent, but bacterial or parasitic prostatitis can be treated effectively with appropriate drug therapy.
Early castration may prevent the development of prostatitis and cavitary lesions (prostatic abscesses or cysts). In intact dogs, castration should always be part of the specific surgical treatment because it enhances treatment success and may prevent recurrence.
Approximately 5 - 7% of dogs with prostatitis have underlying prostatic neoplasia, most commonly adenocarcinoma (it occurs in both intact and castrated dogs), which often metastasizes and has a very poor prognosis.
If neoplasia is suspect, prostatectomy or laser ablation and coagulation may be required.
- Uni of Guelph
- University of Lisbon
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