These bacteria are normally found in the environment and within contaminated food, especially meat.
Within the host, Salmonella can adopt an intracellular lifestyle in epithelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, dendritic cells and other immune cells.
Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:
- Salmonella enterica var typhimurium
- Salmonella enterica var enteritidis
- Salmonella Montevideo
- Salmonella Give
- Salmonella Corvallis
Salmonella is often associated with bacterial enteritis and may be an initiating agent or secondarily involved. Dogs that are fed raw meat are more likely to shed Salmonella in their feces than dogs fed commercial diets, serving as a source of Salmonella exposure to humans through household contamination.
In most cases, an overabundance of Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli is commonly found and other pathogens are often co-involved, such as enteric coronavirus, parvovirus, distemper, protozoa such as Cryptosporidium spp and endoparasites.
Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, microbial culture of fecal samples, ELISA and PCR assays.
Treatment usually requires broad-spectrum antimicrobials such as amoxycillin/clavulanate and cephalosporins, although resistance is common. Most serovars are sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone.
Basic practices of isolation, use of appropriate protective equipment, and proper cleaning and disinfection are the mainstays of control.
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