Splenic nodular hyperplasia
Splenic nodular hyperplasia is a benign neoplasia of the canine spleen.
These tumors are frequently found as an incidental finding but are an important differential when detecting splenic tumors.
A number of variants have been reported, including:
- Lymphoid hyperplasia
- Hematopoietic hyperplasia
- Plasmocytic hyperplasia
- Fibrohistiocytic hyperplasia - early lymphoma forms
- Mixed hyperplasia
Clinically affected dos may show no symptoms or may present with a palpable splenic mass.
A presumptive diagnosis is usually established with radiographic, ultrasonographic or CT imaging. A definitive diagnosis is usually achieved with ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy and histological examination of tissue samples.
Nodular fibrohistiocytic hyperplasia may represent a transitional form between nodule and malignant neoplasia (i.e., malignant fibrous histiocytoma or generalized histiocytic sarcoma) and histologically are characterized by a mixed population of spindle cells in varying proportions with hematopoietic elements, plasma cells, and lymphocytes.
In patients with histiocytic hyperplasia, high mitotic indices are usually afforded a guarded prognosis as these often transform into malignant lymphoma with a 12-month period in 50% of cases.
In other forms of splenic nodular hyperplasia, there are usually no clinical symptoms associated with this condition.
A differential diagnosis would include splenic contracture post-anesthesia, splenic tumors, splenic hematoma, mast cell tumor, splenitis and secondary lymphoma, mast cell tumor and hemangiosarcoma.
These tumors are usually benign apart from histiocytic forms and rarely require surgical intervention, although regular monitoring of the patient is recommended.
- University of Pennyslvania
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