Leiomyoma are a common gastrointestinal stromal (smooth muscle) neoplasia of the dog.
Paraneoplastic syndromes observed with these tumors include hypoglycemia and high plasma erythropoietin causing secondary erythrocytosis.
Clinical signs include anorexia, fever, weight loss, tenesmus, hematochezia, rectal bleeding, peritonitis and occasionally vomiting.
Diagnosis is based on presenting clinical signs, a visible mass on endoscopic, radiographic or ultrasonic examination. Diagnosis is usually confirmed via histological examination of biopsy material.
Treatment usually requires surgical resection of the mass. Chemotherapy may be considered, using doxorubicin as a palliative therapy.
The prognosis with these tumors is guarded, with a survival time of 1 - 2 years.
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