Uterine prolapse

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Partial uterine prolapse in a bitch[1]

Uterine prolapse and eversion is a relatively uncommon gynecological disorder of dogs characterized by expulsion of part or all of the uterus.

Prolapse of the uterus invariably occurs immediately after or within several hours of parturition, when the cervix is open and the uterus lacks tone[2].

In most cases, this is associated with dystocia[3], but other causes have been incriminated as contributors to the disease such as uterine atony, puerperal hypocalcemia and lack of exercise.

In rare cases, herniation of the uterine body, urinary bladder, and distal aspect of the colon may occur, resulting in a medical emergency[4].

This condition is relatively easy to diagnose on visual inspection, although differentiation from vaginal prolapse is important. In dogs with dystocia, remnant fetuses may still be present in non prolapsed sections of uterus[5][6].

Treatment usually requires heavy sedation or general anesthesia followed by manual reinsertion of the uterus into the pelvic cavity followed by suture closure of the vulva to prevent recurrence[7].

Broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy is essential because of the inevitable contamination of the uterus once externalized.

Endotoxic shock and hemorrhage are not uncommon in dogs with a chronically prolapsed uterus that has been untreated for more than 24 hours.

An ovariohysterectomy is recommended in many cases where there is extensive damage to the uterus or extreme difficulty in internalized the everted uterine horn.

References

  1. 3G Kennels
  2. Merck Vet Manual
  3. Payan-Carreira R et al (2012) Uterine prolapse with associated rupture in a Podengo bitch. Reprod Domest Anim 47(4):e51-e55
  4. McNamara PS et al (1997) Chronic vaginocervical prolapse with visceral incarceration in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33(6):533-536
  5. Grundy AM (1980) Partial uterine prolapse in a bitch. Vet Rec 106(18-20):420-421
  6. Biddle D & Macintire DK (2000) Obstetrical emergencies. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 15(2):88-93
  7. Smith FO (1986) Postpartum diseases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 16(3):521-524
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