Vaginal prolapse-hyperplasia syndrome (vaginal edema, vaginal fold prolapse) is a relatively rare obstetrical disorder of dogs characterized by vaginal swelling and protrusion from the vulva.
Vaginal prolapse usually occurs during the pro-oestrus and oestrus stages of the sexual cycle. True vaginal prolapse may occur near parturition, as the concentration of serum progesterone declines and the concentration of serum estrogen increases.
Vaginal prolapse may be observed in older dogs associated with extreme abdominal contractions associated with dystocia, constipation or as a consequence of estrogen therapy, fibroepithelial polyps or transmissible venereal tumors.
In rare cases, herniation of the uterine body, urinary bladder, and distal aspect of the colon may occur, resulting in a medical emergency.
Diagnosis is usually achieved by digital examination of the vagina and exclusion of other causes, supported with radiographic and ultrasonographic evidence of a primary vaginal disorder. Histopathological examination of vaginal biopsies may help establish a hyperplastic disease.
A differential diagnosis would include vaginal polyposis, vaginal adenocarcinoma, clitoral hypertrophy, urethral neoplasia protruding into the vaginal vault, uterine prolapse, vaginal abscessation or hematoma.
In many cases, hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus but cystitis is a common sequela due to bacterial overgrowth associated with epithelial damage. Treatments with GnRH or hCG to induce premature ovulation have been used with limited success.
Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically.
- McNamara PS (1997) Chronic vaginocervical prolapse with visceral incarceration in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Ass 33:533-36
- Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei F et al (2008) First report of vaginal prolapse in a bitch treated with estrogen. Anim Reprod Sci 106(1-2):194-199
- Prassinos NN et al (2010) Vaginal rupture and evisceration in a dog. Acta Vet Hung 58(3):309-315
- Alan M et al (2007) True vaginal prolapse in a bitch. Anim Reprod Sci 100(3-4):411-414
- Brown PJ et al (2012) Fibroepithelial polyps of the vagina in bitches: a histological and immunohistochemical study. J Comp Pathol 147(2-3):181-185
- McNamara PS et al (1997) Chronic vaginocervical prolapse with visceral incarceration in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33(6):533-536
- Manothaiudom K & Johnston SD (1991) Clinical approach to vaginal/vestibular masses in the bitch. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 21(3):509-521
- Kieves NR et al (2011) Vaginal resection and anastomosis for treatment of vestibulovaginal stenosis in 4 dogs with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Am Vet Med Assoc 239(7):972-980
- Rushmer RA (1980) Vaginal hyperplasia and uterine prolapse. In: Kirk R.W. ed. Current Veterinary Therapy VII, Small Animal Practice. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co. pp:1222-1224
- Soderberg SF (1986) Vaginal disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 16(3):543-559