Cancer

From Dog
Jump to: navigation, search

Cancer in dogs is a common disease often associated with geriatric patients. However, neoplasia is not simply an age-related phenomenon.

Genetic factors, such as mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53, have also been reported to exist in dogs and may be involved in the known predisposition of some breeds to cancer[1]. Also, various infectious agents have been associated with the development of malignancies such as lymphoma[2].

Carcinogenic compounds result in chronic inflammatory conditions where reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are generated from inflammatory and epithelial cells, causing DNA damage that leads to neoplasia[3]. Current models of cancer stemming from a single mutant cell leading to monoclonal proliferation is being challenged in light of mesothelioma in humans, where it has been found to arise from multicellular mutations (aneuploidy theory of cancer[4]). This may become a more dominant paradigm in future research[5].

Bacteria have also been linked to development of cancer by induction of chronic inflammation and production of carcinogenic bacterial metabolites[6]. An example is Helicobacter pylori, which has been associated with both adenocarcinoma in the pyloric part of the stomach and gastric B-cell lymphoma in humans[7] by inducing cell proliferation and the production of mutagenic free radicals and N-nitroso compounds, secondary to inflammation[8].

Immunosuppression resulting in decreased or impaired surveillance predisposes to the establishment and maintenance of malignancy[9].


Common cancers reported in dogs include:

  • Multicentric
- Lymphoma
- Plasma cell myeloma (plasmacytoma)
  • Circulatory
- Angiofibrolipoma
- Angiolipoleiomyoma
- Angiolipoma
- Angiomyxoma
- Hemangioma
- Hemangioblastoma
- Hemangiopericytoma
- Hemangiosarcoma
- Leukemia
- Intravascular lymphoma
- Polycythemia vera ? (possibly immune-mediated disease)
- Waldenström's macroglobulinemia
  • Skin and connective tissue
- Acanthomatous ameloblastoma
- Adenocarcinoma
- Adenoma
- Anal sac adenocarcinoma
- Aortic chondrosarcoma
- Basal cell carcinoma
- Basal cell tumor
- Cholesteatoma
- Clear cell adnexal carcinoma
- Dermatofibrosis
- Dermoid cyst
- Epithelial hemangiosarcoma
- Epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma
- Epulis
- Fibroma
- Histiocytoma
- Hepatoid gland carcinoma
- Hepatoid gland epithelioma
- Keratoacanthoma
- Malignant histiocytosis
- Malignant mesenchymoma
- Malignant pilomatricoma
- Mast cell tumors
- Meibomian carcinoma
- Melanocytoma
- Melanoma
- Merkel cell carcinoma
- Myxoma
- Peripheral giant cell granuloma
- Papillomatosis
- Round cell tumor
- Sarcoid
- Sebaceous adenoma
- Sebaceous carcinoma
- Sebaceous epithelioma
- Spindle cell tumor
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Transmissible venereal tumor
- Trichoblastoma
- Trichoepithelioma
- Tricholemmoma
  • Salivary gland
- Necrotizing sialometaplasia
  • Lymphoid
- Lymphangiosarcoma
- Lymphoma
  • Lipoid
- Angiofibrolipoma
- Angiolipoleiomyoma
- Angiolipoma
- Lipoma
- Liposarcoma
- Myelolipoma
  • Peripheral nervous system
- Chemodectoma
- Ganglioneuroma
- Glioblastoma
- Nephroblastoma (primary spinal)
- Neuroblastoma
- Neuroepithelioma
- Neurofibroma
- Peripheral nerve sheath tumors
- Retinoblastoma
- Schwannoma
- Astrocytoma
- Craniopharyngioma
- Glioblastoma
- Infundibuloma
- Lymphoma
- Medulloblastoma
- Medulloepithelioma
- Meningioma
- Meningeal carcinomatosis
- Microgliomatosis
- Neurocytoma
- Oligodendroglioma
- Pituitary adenocarcinoma
- Pituitary adenoma
- Primitive neuroectodermal tumor
- Xanthogranuloma
  • Musculoskeletal
- Bone cysts (benign)
- Carney syndrome
- Chondrosarcoma
- Dentigerous cyst (benign)
- Dysgerminoma
- Fibroma
- Fibrosarcoma
- Giant cell tumor
- Leiomyoma
- Leiomyosarcoma
- Polyostotic lymphoma
- Malignant mesenchymoma
- Mixed Müllerian tumor
- Granulocytic sarcoma (Chloroma)
- Myxosarcoma
- Osteoma
- Osteosarcoma
- Osteochondroma
- Osteochondromatosis
- Osteochondrosarcoma
- Rhabdomyoma
- Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Synovial cell sarcoma
  • Respiratory
- Bronchial carcinoma
- Cranial mediastinal carcinoma
- Laryngeal carcinoma
- Mesothelioma
- Osteosarcoma
- Pulmonary carcinoma
- Pulmonary lymphoma
  • Heart
- Chemodectoma
- Mesothelioma
- Paraganglioma
- Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Right atrial hemangiosarcoma
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Ameloblastoma
- Melanoma
- Fibrosarcoma
- Plasmacytoma
- Osteosarcoma/Osteoma
- Erythema multiforme and epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma
- Odontogenic
- Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma - inner mouth, aligned with molars[10]
- Odontogenic myxoma[11]
- Lingual
- osteoma - usually involves maxillary or mandibular bone with hard swellings of the tongue, jaw or face[12]
- liposarcoma[13] - usually firm oval mass
- Salivary gland
- Angiolipoma[14]
- Salivary gland adenoma
- Salivary gland carcinoma
- Salivary gland lymphoma
  • Gastric
- Gastric carcinoma
  • Pancreatic
- Gastrinoma
- Insulinoma
- Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
- Somatostatinoma
  • Hepatic
- Bile duct carcinoma
- Biliary cystadenoma
- Hemangiosarcoma
- Hepatic adenocarcinoma
- Hepatic adenoma
- Hepatic carcinoma
- Hepatic neuroendocrine tumor
- Lymphoma
  • Splenic
- Splenic sarcoma
- Splenic nodular hyperplasia
- Splenic leiomyosarcoma
- Splenic hemangiosarcoma
- Splenic fibrosarcoma
- Splenic liposarcoma
- Splenic osteosarcoma
- Splenic chondrosarcoma
- Splenic myxosarcoma
- Splenic rhabdomyosarcoma
- Splenic histiocytoma
  • Pancreas
- Insulinoma
- Glucagonoma
- Nephroblastoma
- Oncocytoma
- Renal angiomyxoma
- Renal adenocarcinoma
- Renal carcinoma
- Renal cysts
- Transitional cell carcinoma
- Ureteral transitional cell carcinoma
  • Adrenal
- Adrenal adenocarcinoma
- Adrenal carcinoma
- Pheochromocytoma
- Cystic endometrial hyperplasia
- Uterine leiomyoma
- Epithelial cell tumors
- Hydrosalpynx
- Papillary adenoma, papillary adenocarcinoma
- Ovarian cystadenoma
- Paraovarian cyst
- Ovarian carcinoma
- Germ cell tumors
- Dysgerminoma
- Mixed Müllerian tumor
- Sex cord stromal tumors
- Granulosa cell tumor
- Leuteoma
- Teratoma
- Thecomas
- Mammary tumors
- Benign mixed mammary tumors - adenomas and sebaceous adenoma[15], sometimes in association with hyperestrogenism and Sertoli cell tumors[16]
- Mammary adenocarcinoma
- Mammary basal cell carcinoma
- Mammary squamous cell carcinoma
- Mammary basosquamous carcinoma[17]
- Mammary carcinoma
- Mammary carcinosarcoma
- Mammary carcinoma in benign-mixed tumor[18]
- Mammary carcinoma with sebaceous metaplasia[19]
- Mammary carcinoma with lipid-rich amyloid deposition[20]
- Mammary melanoma[21]
- Mammary mast cell tumor[22]
- Mammary osteosarcoma[23]
- Mammary papilloma[24]
- Mammary spindle cell tumor[25]
- Clitoral adenocarcinoma
- Sertoli cell tumor
  • Reproductive - male
- Prostatic adenocarcinoma
- Prostatic hyperplasia
- Prostatic squamous metaplasia
- Seminoma
- Sertoli cell tumor
- Thyroid adenoma
- Thyroid carcinoma
- Thyroid adenocarcinoma
- Thyroid carcinosarcoma
- Thyroid chondrosarcoma[26]
- Thyroid oncocytoma
- Parathyroid adenoma
- Parathyroid carcinoma
  • Thymus
- Thymoma

References

  1. Veldhoen N et al (1998) Mutations of the p53 gene in canine lymphoma and evidence for germ line p53 mutations in the dog. Oncogene 16:249–255
  2. Fournel-Fleury C et al (2002) Canine T-cell lymphomas: A morphological, immunological, and clinical study of 46 new cases. Vet Pathol 39:92–109
  3. Hiraku Y. (2009) Formation of 8-nitroguanine, a nitrative DNA lesion, in inflammation-related carcinogenesis and its significance. Environ Health Prev Med Nov 19
  4. Duesberg P et al (2000) Aneuploidy precedes and segregates with chemical carcinogenesis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 119(2):83-93
  5. Comertpay, S et al (2014) Evaluation of clonal origin of malignant mesothelioma. Journal of Translational Medicine 12(1):301
  6. Ohshima H (2003) Genetic and epigenetic damage induced by reactive nitrogen species: Implications in carcinogenesis. Toxicol Lett 2003:99–104
  7. Vainio H & Wilbourn J (1993) Cancer etiology: Agents causally associated with human cancer. Pharmacol Toxicol 72:4–11
  8. Parsonnet J (1995) Bacterial infection as a cause of cancer. Environ Health Perspect 103:263–268
  9. Lane EP & Lobetti RG (2002) Renal T-cell lymphoma with cerebral metastases in a dog with chronic canine ehrlichiosis. J SA Vet Assoc 73:83–85
  10. Snyder LA & Michael H (2011) Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a juvenile labrador retriever: case report and literature review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 47(6):443-446
  11. Barigye R et al (2011) Odontogenic myxoma in an 8-year-old Labrador Retriever dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 23(1):167-171
  12. Fernandez M et al (2012) Lingual osteoma in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 53(8):480-482
  13. Piseddu E et al (2011) Cytologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of lingual liposarcoma in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol 40(3):393-397
  14. Kitshoff AM et al (2010) Infiltrative angiolipoma of the parotid salivary gland in a dog. J S Afr Vet Assoc 81(4):258-261
  15. Grandi F et al (2011) Mammary tumors with sebaceous differentiation in dogs. Vet Pathol 48(5):1002-1003
  16. Warland J et al (2011) Hyperoestrogenism and mammary adenosis associated with a metastatic Sertoli cell tumour in a male Pekingese dog. Vet Q 31(4):211-214
  17. Shin SK et al (2011) Basosquamous carcinoma with systemic metastasis in a miniature Pinscher. Jpn J Vet Res 59(4):173-179
  18. Ribeiro GM et al (2012) Morphological aspects and immunophenotypic profiles of mammary carcinomas in benign-mixed tumors of female dogs. Vet Med Int 2012:432763
  19. Grandi F et al (2011) Sebaceous metaplasia in a canine mammary gland non-infiltrative carcinoma with myoepithelial component. J Vet Diagn Invest 23(6):1230-1233
  20. Tei M et al (2012) Mammary lipid-rich carcinoma with extensive amyloid deposition in a dog. J Vet Med Sci 74(6):809-811
  21. Yang HJ et al (2011) Angiotropic metastatic malignant melanoma in a canine mammary gland. Lab Anim Res 27(4):353-356
  22. Sfacteria A et al (2011) Mast cells in canine mammary gland tumour: number, distribution and EPOR positivity. Vet Comp Oncol 9(4):310-315
  23. Pawłowski KM et al (2011) Gene expression pattern in canine mammary osteosarcoma. Pol J Vet Sci 14(1):11-20
  24. Cassali GD et al (2009) A simple ductal mammary papilloma in a male maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). J Vet Diagn Invest 21(1):153-155
  25. Wensman H et al (2008) Plasticity of cloned canine mammary spindle cell tumor, osteosarcoma and carcinoma cells. Vet Pathol 45(6):803-815
  26. Rossetto A et al (2011) Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the spleen: report of a case. Tumori 97(4):e10-15