Cryptorchidism is a relatively common developmental disorder of dogs characterized by either one (monorchid) or both testes which have failed to descend into the scrotum within the first few weeks after birth.
Cryptorchidism has been associated with ambiguous genitalia (hermaphroditism or persistent Müllerian duct syndrome) and in polyrchid dogs (presence of three testes, two of which were undescended).
This disease is associated with genetic causes. Insulin-like 3 (INSL3) plays a prominent role in male development and is supposed to induce the growth of the gubernaculum testis, thus being directly involved in testicular descent.
Clinically affected cryptorchid dogs often have lower testosterone levels compared with normal and unilateral cryptorchid dogs.
Diagnosis is usually based on scrotal palpation, transabdominal palpation and ultrasonography.
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