Enrofloxacin is bactericidal, with activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. It is rapidly absorbed from the digestive tract, penetrating into all measured body tissues and fluids.
The mechanism of action of these compounds is very complex and not yet fully understood. The site of action is bacterial gyrase, a synthesis promoting enzyme. The effect on Escherichia coli is the inhibition of DNA synthesis through prevention of DNA supercoiling. Among other things, such compounds lead to the cessation of cell respiration and division. They may also interrupt bacterial membrane integrity.
Enrofloxacin is effective against:
- Bacteroides spp
- Bordetella bronchiseptica
- Brucella canis
- Clostridium perfringens
- Corynebacterium spp
- Escherichia coli
- Klebsiella spp
- Proteus mirabilis
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
The safe use of enrofloxacin has not been established in large and giant breeds during the rapid growth phase. Large breeds may be in this phase for up to one year of age and the giant breeds for up to 18 months. In clinical field trials utilizing a daily oral dose of 5.0 mg/kg, there were no reports of lameness or joint problems in any breed. However, controlled studies with histological examination of the articular cartilage have not been conducted in the large or giant breeds.
Recommended dose in dogs is 5 - 20 mg/kg
- Westropp JL et al (2012) Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of high dose short duration enrofloxacin treatment regimen for uncomplicated urinary tract infections in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 26(3):506-512
- Henneveld K et al (2012) Corynebacterium spp. in Dogs and Cats with Otitis Externa and/or Media: A Retrospective Study. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 48(5):320-326
- Mekić S et al (2011) Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs with otitis externa. Vet Rec 169(5):125
- Blondeau JM et al (2012) In vitro killing of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin in combination with its active metabolite ciprofloxacin using clinically relevant drug concentrations in the dog and cat. Vet Microbiol 155(2-4):284-290