Intertrigo

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Intertrigo in a Pug dog showing facial folds due to brachycephalic syndrome[1]

Intertrigo (skin fold dermatitis) is a moisture-associated dermatitis[2] associated with skin folds, and is predisposed in breeds with excessive skin such as the Shar Pei, Bloodhound, Boston Terrier, Cocker Spaniel, Springer Spaniel, English bulldog, Neapolitan Mastiff, Pekingese, Pug and French Bulldog.

Although this condition is more commonly seen as a secondary disease associated with atopy[3], pyoderma and flea allergy dermatitis, it can be a primaru condition in dogs with excessive skin, such as is seen with Shar Pei dogs and in dogs with hemivertebra-associated kinked tails.

In primary intertrigo, the areas affected include the face, lips, axillae, genitals, paws, tail or trunk. In severe cases, secondary pyoderma and pododermatitis may be observed. The condition develops as a result of friction between two skin surfaces. Facial fold dermatitis is common in brachycephalic breeds and lip fold dermatitis is prevalent in Spaniels. Pre-existing folds tend to become deeper in these individuals.

As a result of friction, microbial overgrowth is increased in skin folds with poor air ventilation, leading to impetigo, often complicated by skin secretions, tears, saliva or urine.

Concurrent diseases that decrease skin immunity, such as hyperadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism, food allergies, also encourage yeasts and bacteria, leading to a malodorous lesion. Secondary hot spots are not an uncommon sequela.

Treatment is usually symptomatic with medicated shampoos, topical creams and/or antimicrobial drugs such as amoxycillin/clavulanate.

References

  1. Cabinet Veterinaire
  2. Voegeli D (2013) Moisture-associated skin damage: an overview for community nurses. Br J Community Nurs 18(1):6-12
  3. Roque JB et al (2011) Real-time PCR quantification of the canine filaggrin orthologue in the skin of atopic and non-atopic dogs: a pilot study. BMC Res Notes 4:554