The etiology of this condition in dogs is unknown and congenital pyloric stenosis appears commonly in brachycephalic breeds such as the Boxer, Boston Terrier and Bulldog. An acquired version has been observed in the Lhasa Apso, Shih Tzu, Pekingese, Poodle and Rottweiler. Males appear to be more predisposed to this disease than females.
Clinically affected dogs are often young at first diagnosis and the disease frequently presents in young dogs with chronic, intermittent projectile vomiting or regurgitation after eating. Weight loss, polydipsia and anorexia may also be observed.
Pyloric stenosis produces gastric hypersecretion and is thought to stimulate the growth of the gastric mucosa as well as result in the projectile vomiting which is so characteristic of this condition.
Contrast radiography may also be used to assist a diagnosis and often reveals delayed stomach emptying.
Histological analysis of biopsied pyloric tissue is characterized by gross hypertrophy and disorganised whorls of muscle, with an apparent reduction in the amount of neural tissue present.
Treatment may be implemented conservatively with antiemetic medication but surgical intervention is required in many cases due to the refractory nature of this condition. Pyloric balloon dilation, pyloromyotomy or gastroduodenostomy are usually curative in most cases.
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