Trematodes

From Cat

Trematodes, or flukes, are relatively rare parasites in cats and are commonly seen associated with consumption of raw fish. These parasites are often seen residing in the small intestine where they cause minimal pathology unless in large numbers[1].

Clinical signs in cats infected with pancreatic and liver flukes vary from asymptomatic to pancreatitis, cholangitis and cholecystitis. Treatment is effective with praziquantel at doses from 5 - 20 mg/kg weekly.

Species which have been reported to infect cats include:


Parasite Location in cat Intermediate host Geographical distribution
Acanthotrema felis duodenum, jejunum snails, molluscs Asia
Alaria marcianae duodenum, jejunum frogs, paratenic mammals North America
Amphimerus pseudofelineus gallbladder, bile ducts, small intestine freshwater fish North and South America
Apophallus donicus duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Europe
Apophallus venustus duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish North America
Apophallus muehlingi duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Europe
Artyfechinostomum spp duodenum, jejunum Snails, frogs India
Ascocotyle ascolonga duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Europe
Ascocotyle longicollis duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Middle East
Ascocotyle minuta duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Middle East
Ascocotyle angrense duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Brazil
Ascocotyle longa duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Americas
Ascocotyle pachycystis duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish North America
Ascocotyle arnoldoi duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish South America
Centrocestus armatus duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Taiwan
Clinostomum falsatum mouth freshwater fish South Africa
Clinostomum kalappahi mouth freshwater fish India
Clinostomum abdoni mouth freshwater fish Phillipines
Clonorchis sinensis liver freshwater fish Asia
Cryptocotyle lingua duodenum, jejunum saltwater fish North America
Cryptocotyle concavum duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Russia
Cryptocotyle quinqueangularis duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Europe, North Africa, North America
Cynodiplostomum spp duodenum, jejunum frogs Middle East
Dexiogonimus spp duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Middle East
Diplostomulum spp duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Asia
Echinochasmus perfoliatus duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Europe, Middle and Far East
Echinochasmus breviviteilus duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Middle East
Echinochasmus liliputanus duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Middle East
Echinoparyphium spp duodenum, jejunum frogs Tasmania, King Island
Echinostoma revolutum, E. hortense, E. japonicus duodenum, jejunum
Episthmium spp duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish India
Euparadistomum buckleyi gallbladder snail India
Euparadistomum heiwschi gallbladder snail Africa
Euparadistomum pearsoni gallbladder snail Papua New Guinea
Euryhelmis squamula duodenum, jejunum newt, toads Europe, North America
Euryhelmis monorchis duodenum, jejunum frogs North America
Euryhelmis pacifica duodenum, jejunum salamanders North America
Eurytrema pancreaticum liver, pancreatic duct arthropod North America
Eurytrema procyonis Liver arthropod North America
Fibricola spp duodenum, jejunum frogs Australia
Galactosomum spp duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish West Indies, India
Gymnophalloides seoi duodenum, jejunum snail, molluscs Asia
Haplorchis pumilio duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Middle East, Asia, Australia
Haplorchis yokogawai duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Middle East, Asia
Haplorchis taichui duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Middle East, Asia
Haplorchis sprenti duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish Australia
Haplorchis parataichui duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Australia
Heterobilharzia americana portal vein skin penetration Americas
Heterophyes heterophyes duodenum, jejunum brackish-water fish
Heterophyopsis continua duodenum, jejunum snails, freshwater fish Asia
Isthmiophora spp duodenum, jejunum snails, insects, frogs Asia
Mesostephanus spp duodenum, jejunum, ileum freshwater fish India, Africa
Metagonimus spp duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Europe, Asia
Metorchis conjunctus bile ducts freshwater fish North America
Metorchis albidus bile ducts freshwater fish France, England
Metorchis orientalis bile ducts freshwater fish Asia
Microphalloides vajrasthirae duodenum, jejunum, crustaceans (Crabs) Thailand
Nanophyetus salmincola duodenum, jejunum Snails northern Pacific Rim
Neodiplostomum spp duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Asia
Opisthorchis felineus gallbladder, bile & pancreatic ducts, small intestine Freshwater fish North Europe, Russia, China
Opisthorchis viverrini gallbladder, bile & pancreatic ducts, small intestine Freshwater fish India, South-east Asia
Opisthorchis chabaudi gallbladder Freshwater fish Africa
Ornithobilharzia turkestanica portal vein skin penetration Middle East, southern Russia
Paragonimus westermani lungs freshwater crabs, crayfish Asia, Pacific
Paragonimus pulmonalis lungs freshwater crabs, crayfish Japan, Korea, Taiwan
Paragonimus miyazakii lungs freshwater crabs, crayfish Japan
Paragonimus heterotremus lungs freshwater crabs, crayfish China, Thailand, Laos
Paragonimus siamensis lungs freshwater crabs, crayfish Thailand, Philippines
Paragonimus skrjabini lungs freshwater crabs China
Paragonimus ohirai lungs Brackish-water crabs, crayfish Asia
Paragonimus kellicotti lungs freshwater crayfish North America
Paragonimus mexicanus lungs freshwater crabs Mexico, Central and South America
Paragonimus inca lungs freshwater crabs, crayfish South America
Paragonimus africanus lungs freshwater crabs, crayfish Africa
Paragonimus uterobilateralis lungs freshwater crabs, crayfish Africa
Parametorchius complexus liver Snails, freshwater fish North America
Paropisthorchis caninus gallbladder, bile ducts Freshwater fish India
Pharyngostomum cordatum duodenum, jejunum frogs Asia
Plagiorchis spp duodenum, jejunum Snail, insects Central Europe
Platynosomum fastosum liver Lizards, frogs, toads South Pacific, West Africa, Caribbean
Platynosomum concinnum liver Lizards, frogs, toads South Pacific, West Africa, Caribbean
Platynosomum planicipitis liver Lizards, frogs, toads South Pacific, West Africa, Caribbean
Procerovum varium duodenum, jejunum Brackish-water fish Australia
Procerovum calderoni duodenum, jejunum Brackish-water fish Philippines
Prohemistomum vivax duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Asia, Africa
Pygidiopsis summa duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Africa, Asia, Europe
Schistosoma japonicum portal vein skin penetration Asia
Schistosoma reflexum portal vein skin penetration Spain
Stellantchasmus falcatus duodenum, jejunum Brackish- and freshwater fish Middle East, Asia, Australia, Hawaii
Stephanoprora spp duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Asia
Stictodora fuscata duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Asia
Stictodora lari duodenum, jejunum freshwater fish Africa, Middle East, Asia


References

  1. Bowman, DD et al (2003) Feline clinical parasitology. Iowa University Press, Iowa. pp:97-98