Anopheles spp

From Cow
Adult Anopheles spp mosquito

Anopheles spp are a parasitic mosquito found worldwide.

Species of Anopheles which are pathogenic to cattle include:

  • Anopheles arabiensis (Africa)[1]
  • Anopheles sinensis (China)
  • Anopheles minimus (Asia)[2]
  • Anopheles albimanus
  • Anopheles pseudopunctipennis
  • Anopheles punctimacula (South America) [3]

These mosquitoes are primarily a 'worry' to cattle, causing skin rashes, but may also transmit arboviruses such as Rift Valley fever[4] and Tahyna virus[5]. The mosquito has a predilection for moist environments and is commonly found near farms, on fecal material and cow urine[6].

Treatment is relatively effective with most insecticides, although resistance to older chemicals is common. The use of avermectin-based drugs has proven effective at population control of this insect in cattle herds.

References

  1. Lyimo IN et al (2012) Does Cattle Milieu Provide a Potential Point to Target Wild Exophilic Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) with Entomopathogenic Fungus? A Bioinsecticide Zooprophylaxis Strategy for Vector Control. J Parasitol Res 2012:280583
  2. Tisgratog R et al (2012) Host feeding patterns and preference of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area of western Thailand: baseline site description. Parasit Vectors 5:114
  3. Pinault LL & Hunter FF (2012) Larval Habitat Associations with Human Land Uses, Roads, Rivers, and Land Cover for Anopheles albimanus, A. pseudopunctipennis, and A. punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) in Coastal and Highland Ecuador. Front Physiol 3:59
  4. Tchouassi DP et al (2012) Trapping of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) vectors using Light Emitting Diode (LED) CDC traps in two arboviral disease hot spots in Kenya. Parasit Vectors 5:94
  5. Li WJ et al (2010) Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau--focused on the Qinghai area, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82(4):705-711
  6. Kweka EJ et al (2011) The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasit Vectors 4:184