Bovine viral diarrhea
Bovine viral diarrhea and mucosal disease complex (BVD) is a viral disease caused by a pestivirus (BVDV) that affects mostly young cattle worldwide.
Bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) is spread by insects and fomites and primarily affects cattle but can affect other ruminants. BVDV can spread via direct or indirect contact and can be isolated in and is widely disseminated by nasal discharge, saliva, feces, semen, urine, tears and milk of persistently infected animals.
Classically, isolates of BVDV are separated into noncytopathic and cytopathic biotypes based on cytopathic effects observed in infected cultures of non-lymphoid cells. There are at least 2 viral genotypes (distinct genetic groups) of BVDV that can be further divided into subgenotypes or genogroups. The viral genotypes are termed BVDV type 1 and BVDV type 2, and both cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV are represented in each viral genotype.
Clinical signs include fever, inappetence, diarrhea, ptyalism, reduced milk production, oral ulcers and mucosal lesions. High morbidity with moderate mortality is common and coinfection with the fungus Enterocytozoon spp is frequently noted.
Clinical signs may last several weeks to months.
BVD is diagnosed tentatively from disease history, clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions. Confirmation is obtained with ELISA or PCR testing of infective tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry testing has also proved effective.
Treatment of BVD remains limited primarily to supportive therapy.
Control is based on sound management practices that include use of biosecurity measures, elimination of persistently infected cattle, and vaccination.
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