Chondrosarcoma

From Cow

Chondrosarcoma are a relatively rare neoplasia observed in cattle.

The disease involves neoplastic changes to chondrocytes involved with cartilage growth, maintenance and remodeling of cartilage.

In abattoir surveys, the frequency of malignant or benign cartilaginous neoplasms in cattle has been found to be less than 1% of all neoplasms[1].

The cause of this disease is unknown but likely to involve genetics. Chondrosarcoma usually affect axial bones rather than appendicular ones, and flat bones are involved more often than long bones.

Chondrosarcoma have been commonly reported in the scapula of cattle with no apparent breed predilection[2]. Other sites include the nasal turbinates[3] and extraskeletal sites such as the mesenchyme[4].

Lameness is usually the first presenting clinical sign, and as the condition worsens, obvious swelling around the tumour becomes apparent. In tumours involving the nasal turbinates, a nasal discharge and dyspnea may be apparent.

Diagnosis can only be made after histological analysis of biopsied tissue samples taken from the tumour, but supportive evidence such as ultrasonographic and radiographic imaging may lend a suspicion to this type of neoplasia.

Histologically, these tumours appear as unencapsulated, multilobular growths composed of neoplastic spindle cells embedded in irregular islands of chondroid matrix[5].

Metastasis is relatively common, particularly to the lungs and the prognosis is guarded to poor in most cases.

References

  1. Richardson DW & Acland HM (1983) Chondrosarcoma in a cow. Cornell Vet 73:137–143
  2. Beck AP & Jones ML (2012) Chondrosarcoma of the scapula of an 8-month-old Holstein steer. J Vet Diagn Invest 24(4):791-793
  3. Beytut E et al (2006) Nasal chondrosarcoma in a Simmental cow. Can Vet J 47(4):349-351
  4. Uno K et al (1989) Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in a cow. J Comp Pathol 101:31–38
  5. Martinek B et al (2006) Chondrosarcoma in a simmental cow: Clinical, ultrasonographic, radiographic and pathological findings. Vet J 172(1):181-184