Heterodoxus is found throughout the world but is generally restricted to areas with domestic livestock.
Species which are pathogenic to cattle include:
- Heterodoxus spiniger
- Changbunjong T et al (2009) A survey of ectoparasitic arthropods on domestic animals in Tak Province, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40(3):435-442
- White WH et al (2007) Therapeutic and persistent efficacy of spinosad applied as a pour-on or a topical spray against natural infestations of chewing and sucking lice on cattle. Vet Parasitol 143(3-4):329-336