Hyalomma spp

From Cow
Adult female Hyalomma rufipes
Hyalomma impeltatum feeding on cow

Hyalomma spp ticks are one of the more common common skin parasite of cattle in tropical and temperate regions worldwide[1].

Species of Hyalomma bont ticks which have been reported in cattle include:

  • Hyalommina brevi-punctata - (India, Pakistan)
  • Hyalommina hussaini (India, Pakistan, Burma)[2]
  • Hyalommina rhipicephaloides (Dead Sea)
  • Hyalommina arabica (Yemen, Saudi Arabia)
  • Hyalommina punt (Somalia, Ethiopia)
  • Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Asia) - highly pathogenic[3]
  • Hyalomma anatolicum excavitum[4]
  • Hyalomma lusitanicum (Mediterranean)
  • Hyalomma marginatum[5]
H. marginatum marginatum (Caspian sea, Mediterannean, Africa)[6]
H. marginatum rufipes (Africa)[7]
H. marginatum turanicum (Pakistan, Iran, Russia, Arabia, Africa)
H. marginatum isaaci (Sri Lanka to south Nepal, Pakistan, northern Afghanistan)
  • Hyalomma asiaticum (China, Mongolia, Southern Russia)
H. asiaticum kozlovi
H. asiaticum asiaticum
H. asiaticum caucasicum
  • Hyalomma detritum (Asia, Africa, Europe)[8]
  • Hyalomma impeltatum (Middle East, north Africa
  • Hyalomma scupense (Russia, south Europe)
  • Hyalomma schulzei (Middle East)[9]
  • Hyalomma truncatum (Africa)
  • Hyalomma albiparmatum (Africa)
  • Hyalomma erythraeum (Africa)
  • Hyalomma impressum (West Africa)
  • Hyalomma nitidum (Central and west Africa)
  • Hyalomma dromedarii (Middle East)[10]

As well as causing 'tick worry' and skin disease, these ticks are vectors for Rickettsia spp, Anaplasma spp, Babesia spp, Trypanosoma spp, Theileria spp, Francisella tularensis (Tularaemia), Q fever, human haemorrhagic fever, sawgrass virus and Powassan virus[11].

Control of this parasite is usually effective with topical acaricides such as ivermectin, doramectin and fipronil[12]. Commercial vaccines are also being tested in cattle and are showing promise[13].

Commercially available synthetic acaricides are commonly used, but indiscriminate practices in their application have resulted in the rapid evolution of resistance. Although single acaricide treatment can destroy all of the ticks on an animal, they will not prevent reinfestation.

Vaccines are commercially available and show promises at reducing Hyalomma spp infestations in cattle using the Bm86 tick protein ortholog.

The infested pasture must remain free of all livestock for 6 to 9 months or longer, to break the tick life cycle.

References

  1. Merck Vet Manual
  2. Ahmed S et al (2012) Investigations into Ixodidae ticks in cattle in Lahore, Pakistan. Vet Ital '48(2):185-191
  3. Haque M et al (2010) Prevalence of Theileria annulata infection in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Punjab state, India. J Parasit Dis 34(1):48-51
  4. Chochlakis D et al (2012) Spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks in Cyprus. Microb Ecol 63(2):314-323
  5. Marufu MC et al (2011) Relationships between tick counts and coat characteristics in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle reared on semiarid rangelands in South Africa. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2(3):172-177
  6. Cassini R et al (2012) New insights into the epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy. Vet Parasitol 184(1):77-82
  7. Francischetti IM et al (2011) An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes. J Proteomics 74(12):2892-2908
  8. Ben Said M et al (2012) Hd86, the Bm86 tick protein ortholog in Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum): expression in Pichia pastoris and analysis of nucleotides and amino acids sequences variations prior to vaccination trials. Vet Parasitol 183(3-4):215-223
  9. Shemshad K et al (2012) Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran. Parasitol Res 110(1):373-380
  10. Tajeri S & Razmi GR (2011) Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) imbibe bovine blood in vitro by utilizing an artificial feeding system. Vet Parasitol 180(3-4):332-335
  11. Mourya DT et al (2012) Detection, isolation and confirmation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in human, ticks and animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010-2011. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6(5):e1653
  12. Kiss T et al (2012) Tick prevention at a crossroad: new and renewed solutions. Vet Parasitol 187(3-4):357-66
  13. Kumar B et al (2012) Efficacy of rBm86 against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (IVRI-I line) and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (IVRI-II line) infestations on bovine calves. Parasitol Res 111(2):629-635