Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) is a rare autosomal recessive lethal genetic disease of Holstein and Friesian cattle. Affected calves suffer from frequent infections, which either fail to respond to or recur after conventional treatment.
The disease is characterized by recurrent pneumonia, ulcerative and granulomatous stomatitis, enteritis, periodontitis, delayed wound healing, neutrophilia and early death. Affected calves normally die before reaching sexual maturity.
BLAD is caused by a point mutation in the gene encoding bovine CD18, producing a substitution of a guanine for adenine and of an aspartic acid to glycine at amino acid 128 (D128G).
The resulting decline in use of semen from carrier bulls led to a decrease in the occurrence of the condition. The extensive use of artificial insemination in dairy cattle allows this strategy to have a rapid impact.
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