Mammomonogamus spp

From Cow
Mammomongamus spp eggs
Adult Mammomongamus spp

Mammomonogamus (Syngamus) spp (Gapeworms) are free-living parasitic nematodes[1] which infect cattle nasal sinuses, epiglottus and and trachea[2].

Pathogenic species which have been recorded in cattle include:

  • Mammomonogamus laryngeus[3]
  • Mammomonogamus nasicola
  • Mammomonogamus gangguiensis

Most affected cattle are asymptomatic with infestation by gapeworms[4]. Clinical signs associated with this parasite include nasal discharge, which may often include epistaxis. When tracheal or epiglottal parasitism occurs, coughing and dyspnea may ensue[5].

Treatment involves topical or parenteral thiabendazole or ivermectin.


  1. Birová V et al (1980) Scanning electron microscopic study of Mammomonogamus laryngeus. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 27(4):325-328
  2. Macko JK et al (1981) Deliberations on the problems of mammomonogamus species (Nematoda, Syngamidae) in ruminants. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 28(1):43-49
  3. Echeverry DM et al(2011) Prevalence of Mammomonogamus laryngeus(Strongylida:Syngamidae) nematodes in a bovine slaughterhouse. Biomedica 31(3):316-321
  4. Amarante AF et al (1997) Host specificity of sheep and cattle nematodes in São Paulo state, Brazil. Vet Parasitol 73(1-2):89-104
  5. Van Aken D et al (1996) Mammomonogamus laryngeus (Railliet, 1899) infections in cattle in Mindanao, Philippines. Vet Parasitol 64(4):329-332