Salmonella spp

From Cow
Icterus in a two-week-old calf with salmonellosis

Salmonella spp are a flagellated anaerobic Gram-negative intestinal bacteria that cause disease and milk and meat contamination in cattle worldwide[1].

Species of Salmonella which are pathogenic to cattle include:

  • salmonella enterica dublin
  • Salmonella enterica typhimurium[2]

Infections are acquired by the oral route, and the bacteria transit through varied anatomical and cellular niches to elicit systemic disease[3].

Salmonella causes acute enteritis ('typhoid') and exudative diarrhea in calves. In addition to enteric disease, S. dublin can cause systemic infections, and may cause typhoid and abortion in pregnant cows[4]. In these infections, transmission is generally by the oral route.

In calves born with leukocyte adhesion deficiency, infections by Salmonella spp can be fatal[5].

Broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy usually is effective, given orally or parenterally depending on the severity and location of infection.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, fluoroquinolones such as enrofloxacin and ceftiofur are usually prescribed[6].

References

  1. Ersbøll AK & Nielsen LR (2011) Spatial patterns in surveillance data during control of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds in Jutland, Denmark 2003-2009. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol 2(3):195-204
  2. Kirchner M et al (2012) A comparison between longitudinal shedding patterns of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Dublin on dairy farms. Vet Rec 171(8):194
  3. Pullinger GD et al (2010) Role of two-component sensory systems of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in the pathogenesis of systemic salmonellosis in cattle. Microbiology 156(10):3108-3122
  4. Costa LF et al (2012) Salmonellosis in cattle: advantages of being an experimental model. Res Vet Sci 93(1):1-6
  5. Nunes JS et al(2010) Morphologic and cytokine profile characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Vet Pathol 47(2):322-333
  6. Merck Vet Manual