Stomoxys spp

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Adult Stomoxys flies

Stomoxys are a parasitic haematophagous stable fly which causes 'worry' as well as transmitting diseases in cattle worldwide[1].

Species of Stomoxys which have been recognized as disease causing in cattle include:

  • S. calcitrans (Worldwide)[2]
  • S. indicus (Asia)[3]
  • S. sitiens (Asia)
  • S. uruma (Asia)

These biting flies are found normally feeding in organic matter but will feed on cattle, causing 'worry' and pruritus.

Stomoxys flies also mechanical vectors for anthrax, Trypanosoma spp[4], Besnoitia spp[5], Mycoplasma spp[6] and pink eye.

Topical insecticides such as fipronil and pyrethrins (eg, cypermethrin or cyfluthrin) help control these parasites[7].

References

  1. Merck Vet Manual
  2. Skovgård H & Nachman G (2012) Population dynamics of stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) at an organic dairy farm in Denmark based on mark-recapture with destructive sub-sampling. Environ Entomol 41(1):20-29
  3. Keawrayup S et al (2012) Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Parasite 19(3):259-265
  4. Mekuria S & Gadissa F (2011) Survey on bovine trypanosomosis and its vector in Metekel and Awi zones of Northwest Ethiopia. Acta Trop 117(2):146-151
  5. Liénard E et al (2011) A longitudinal study of Besnoitia besnoiti infections and seasonal abundance of Stomoxys calcitrans in a dairy cattle farm of southwest France. Vet Parasitol 177(1-2):20-27
  6. Hornok S et al (2011) Molecular investigation of transplacental and vector-borne transmission of bovine haemoplasmas. Vet Microbiol 152(3-4):411-414
  7. Borges FA et al (2008) Endectocide activity of a new long-action formulation containing 2.25% ivermectin+1.25% abamectin in cattle. Vet Parasitol 155(3-4):299-307