Acidophil hepatitis

From Dog
Acute hepatitis associated with acidophil cell inclusion bodies

Acidophil hepatitis is a rare liver disease of dogs characterized by chronic hepatitis and fibrosis[1].

The cause of this disease is unknown, but a viral etiology is suspected as canine herpesvirus affects neonatal puppies, causing hepatic necrosis as well as other systemic changes, and is fatal[2].

Acidophil hepatitis has been reported in dogs in Great Britain, characterized by the histopathologic presence of acidophil cells. Chronic active hepatitis and sometimes hepatocellular carcinoma may occur.

Clinical disease varies from acute hepatitis that is severe and fatal to chronic hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. Intermittent fevers and spikes in ALT levels are noted in chronic disease.

Diagnosis is determined primarily by histopathological examination of liver biopsy.

A differential diagnosis would include Bedlington terrier hepatitis and canine adenovirus (CAV-1) and Leptospira interrogans infections[3].

There is no specific treatment for this disease and prognosis is poor.

References

  1. Jarrett WF et al (1997) Persistent hepatitis and chronic fibrosis induced by canine acidophil cell hepatitis virus. Vet Rec 120(10):234-235
  2. Jarrett WF, O'Neil BW, Lindholm I. (1987) Persistent hepatitis and chronic fibrosis induced by canine acidophil cell hepatitis virus. Vet Rec 120(10):234-5
  3. Chouinard, M et al (1998) Use of polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for detection of canine adenovirus type 1 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver of dogs with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. J Vet Diagn Invest 10:320-5