Aedes spp

From Dog
Unfed female A. aegypti[1]

Aedes spp are an hematophagous genus of mosquitoes found worldwide and responsible for transmission of arboviruses and filarae.

Species which affect dogs include:

  • Aedes aegypti
  • Aedes albopictus
  • Aedes camptorhynchus[2]
  • Aedes fluviatilis[3]
  • Aedes galloisi[4]
  • Aedes koreicus[5]
  • Aedes mediovittatus[6]
  • Aedes polynesiensis[7]
  • Aedes taeniorhynchus[8]
  • Aedes triseriatus[9]
  • Aedes vexans[10]

Mosquitoes lay their eggs on water or in dry places that tend to flood seasonally. The larvae molt four times within the first two weeks of hatching and then pupate. Within 24 hours after emergence from the pupa, female mosquitoes begin seeking blood, feeding every day or every second day on a host until sufficient protein stores allow them to begin laying eggs. It is the repeated feeding which makes them vectors for so many diseases and a cause of blood loss when feeding in swarms[11].

Diseases which have been reportedly transmitted to dogs include:

Preventative control of mosquito populations is the most effective method of disease control.

Drugs such as fipronil[12] and permethrin[13] are effective in long-term management strategies.

References

  1. Govt Brazil
  2. Johansen CA et al (2009) Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission. J Med Entomol 46(5):1167-1175
  3. Gomes LA et asl (2001) Comparison between precipitin and ELISA tests in the bloodmeal detection of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) mosquitoes experimentally fed on feline, canine and human hosts. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96(5):693-695
  4. Hoshino K et al (2012) Entomological surveillance for flaviviruses at migratory bird stopover sites in Hokkaido, Japan, and a new insect flavivirus detected in Aedes galloisi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 49(1):175-182
  5. Capelli G et al (2011) First report in Italy of the exotic mosquito species Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus, a potential vector of arboviruses and filariae. Parasit Vectors 4:188
  6. Barrera R et al (2012) Vertebrate hosts of Aedes aegypti and Aedes mediovittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in rural Puerto Rico. J Med Entomol 49(4):917-921
  7. Russell RC et al (2005) Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) in Moorea, French Polynesia: a study of adult population structures and pathogen (Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria immitis) infection rates to indicate regional and seasonal epidemiological risk for dengue and filariasis. J Med Entomol 42(6):1045-1056
  8. Manrique-Saide P et al (2010) Incrimination of the mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus, as the primary vector of heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, in coastal Yucatan, Mexico. Med Vet Entomol 24(4):456-460
  9. Debboun M et al (2005) Relative abundance of tree hole-breeding mosquitoes in Boone County, Missouri, USA, with emphasis on the vector potential of Aedes triseriatus for canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis (Spirurida: Filariidae). J Am Mosq Control Assoc 21(3):274-278
  10. Yildirim A et al (2011) Aedes vexans and Culex pipiens as the potential vectors of Dirofilaria immitis in Central Turkey. Vet Parasitol 178(1-2):143-147
  11. Bowman, DD (2009) Georgis' parasitology for veterinarians. 9th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Missouri. pp:7
  12. Bouhsira E et al (2009) Efficacy of fipronil-(S)-methoprene, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and pyriprole commercial spot-on products in preventing Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs. Vet Rec 165(5):135-137
  13. Machida H et al (2008) The inhibitory effect of a combination of imidacloprid and permethrin on blood feeding by mosquitoes in dogs raised under outdoor conditions. Vet Parasitol 154(3-4):318-324