Amikacin

From Dog

Amikacin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal aminoglycoside antimicrobial drug similar to gentamycin.

Amikacin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth[1].

This drug is commonly used for treatment of abscess[2], dermatitis, pyoderma and otitis externa.

It is also used as a first choice drug along with enrofloxacin and amoxycillin/clavulanate in intensive-care units with canine patients awaiting sensitivity results from cultures[3].

It has good activity against Staphylococcus spp[4]. Nocardia spp[5]. Providencia stuartii[6] and Corynebacterium spp[7].

Resistance has been reported with this drug, particularly with Escherichia coli[8], Pseudomonas aeruginosa[9] and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius[10].

Side-effects with use of this drug are similar to other aminoglycosides and include ototoxicity and renal damage.

Recommended dose rate in dogs is 20 mg/kg, given subcutaneously.

Greyhounds are more susceptible to this drug due to delayed plasma clearance and half doses are usually required[11].

References

  1. Wikipedia.org
  2. Wang AL et al (2009) Orbital abscess bacterial isolates and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in dogs and cats. Vet Ophthalmol 12(2):91-96
  3. Black DM et al (2009) Antimicrobial therapy and aerobic bacteriologic culture patterns in canine intensive care unit patients: 74 dogs (January-June 2006). J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 19(5):489-495
  4. Zamankhan Malayeri H et al (2010) Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs. Vet Res Commun 34(5):435-444
  5. Ribeiro MG et al (2008) Nocardiosis: an overview and additional report of 28 cases in cattle and dogs. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 50(3):177-185
  6. Papadogiannakis E et al (2007) Providencia stuartii infection in a dog with severe skin ulceration and cellulitis. J Small Anim Pract 48(6):343-345
  7. Henneveld K et al (2012) Corynebacterium spp. in dogs and cats with otitis externa and/or media: a retrospective study. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 48(5):320-326
  8. Nam HM et al (2010) Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from stray pet dogs and hospitalized pet dogs in Korea. Microb Drug Resist 16(1):75-79
  9. Lin D et al (2012) Characterization of antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine infections. J Appl Microbiol 113(1):16-23
  10. Casagrande Proietti P et al (2012) Insertion sequence IS256 in canine pyoderma isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius associated with antibiotic resistance. Vet Microbiol 157(3-4):376-382
  11. KuKanich B & Coetzee JF (2008) Comparative pharmacokinetics of amikacin in Greyhound and Beagle dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 31(2):102-107