Amphetamine

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Amphetamine toxicosis is a relatively uncommon form of toxicity in dogs.

Amphetamine has also been used to treat narcolepsy[1].

Poisoning usually occurs as a result of consumption of human anti-ADHD medication (e.g. Adderall) prescribed for humans.

Clinical signs of amphetamine toxicosis are related to sudden catecholamine release similar to that witnessed with methyphenidate or pseudoephedrine toxicity[2].

Symptoms include hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, muscle tremors, mydriasis, ptyalism and in severe cases, seizures and death[3][4].

Blood tests may reveal mild leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and metarubricytosis[5].

Diagnosis is usually based on historical evidence of consumption of medication or detection of this drug in vomitus, blood or fecal samples using gas chromatography[6].

Human on-site urine multidrug tests are available at some centers[7].

Treatment is usually supportive, with intravenous fluid therapy, used of sedatives and muscle relaxants such as acepromazine and diazepam.

In acute cases of consumption, induction of emesis may be indicated with apomorphine, followed by gastric lavage under general anesthesia.

Most cases respond to treatment and the prognosis is good.

References

  1. Kanbayashi T et al (2000) Implication of dopaminergic mechanisms in the wake-promoting effects of amphetamine: a study of D- and L-derivatives in canine narcolepsy. Neuroscience 99(4):651-659
  2. Diniz PP et al (2003) Amphetamine poisoning in a dog: case report, literature review and veterinary medical perspectives. Vet Hum Toxicol 45(6):315-317
  3. Stern LA & Schell M (2012) Management of attention-deficit disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug intoxication in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 42(2):279-287
  4. Lynch J et al (2009) Hemodynamic and cardiac neurotransmitter-releasing effects in conscious dogs of attention- and wake-promoting agents: a comparison of d-amphetamine, atomoxetine, modafinil, and a novel quinazolinone H3 inverse agonist. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 53(1):52-59
  5. Wilcox A & Russell KE (2008) Hematologic changes associated with Adderall toxicity in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol 37(2):184-189
  6. March C et al (2001) Determination of amphetamine in dog plasma by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Biomed Chromatogr 15(2):100-107
  7. Teitler JB et al (2009) Evaluation of a human on-site urine multidrug test for emergency use with dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 45(2):59-66